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Cartoon portraits attit flioipjiliical Shctrtrs 












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WITH one exception, the likeness in profile of Lord Lytton, 
the Cartoon Portraits of Men of the Day for the most part 
those of literary celebrities comprised in this volume have 
appeared during the past year as illustrations in ' Once a 
Week.' Biographical sketches accompanied the cartoons in 
the pages of the magazine ; and in collecting and republishing 
the portraits in a separate and more permanent form, it has 
not been thought necessary to make any material alterations 
in the notices that originally accompanied them. 



LORD LYTTON ... . i 

C. R. DARWIN, F.R.S. . 6 



G. E. STREET, R.A. . jg 

'MR. SPEAKER' . 20 

J. L. TOOLE . .22 

GUSTAVE DORE .... .26 







A. C. SWINBURNE . . 4 g 

J. C. M. BELLEW . S o 



TOM HOOD ... 6 4 



C. E. MUDIE .... . .72 

LIONEL BROUGH ... . . 74 





viii Contents. 



GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA . . . ...... 94 


CHARLES LEVER . . . ....... 98 

J. R. PLANCHE . . * . .102 

EDMUND YATES . . . 104 


JOHN RUSKIN . ... 1 08 

W. H. SMITH, M.P. . . ........ 112 

THOMAS CARLYLE ... . . . . 114 

J. B. BUCKSTONE .... . . .116 

FREDERICK LOCKER . ... ..... 118 

MARK TWAIN .... . . .... 122 

H. M. STANLEY . . . ... 124 

J. A. FROUDE . . . . ' . 126 



MATTHEW ARNOLD ... . - 136 


J. B. HOPKINS . . . . . MO 





LORD LYTTON, whose writings have been enormously popular under their 
author's several changes of name, was born in May 1806, the third son of 
William Earle Bulwer, Esq., of Wood Bailing and Heydon. The dis- 
tinguished author has been at one time Lytton-Bulwer, at another Bulwer- 
Lytton. His eldest brother William holds the family lands, granted to his 
ancestor by the Conqueror. The second brother, Henry, whose death was 
lately recorded, was created Lord Bailing for his eminent services as a 
diplomatist. The third, youngest, and most famous of the family, is the 
subject of this notice Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer, Baron Lytton 
of Knebworth. He married, in 1827, Eosina, daughter of Francis Wheeler, 
Esq., the surviving issue of which marriage is a son, well known as a writer 
under the nom de plume of Owen Meredith. Lord Lytton's other child, a 
daughter, died unmarried in 1848. 

The great novelist was very young when first he began to write. When 
he was only fifteen, he sent out ' Ismael, an Oriental Tale,' and a poem on 
' Waterloo,' celebrating the heroic deeds of Corporal Shaw the Lifeguards- 
man : 

Meantime brave Shaw usurps the martial plain, 

And spreads the field with Gallic heaps of slain. 

The young poet was sent to Cambridge, where in 1825 he won the 
Chancellor's medal; and after another volume of verse, gave the world 
' Falkland,' his first novel. A large part of this work is made up of letters 
from one of the characters to another ; and the old style of heading, ' From 
the same to the same,' becomes very tedious, as they talk in vapid platitudes, 
slightly spiced with Byronic morality. The preface is dated March 7, 1827, 

and the author says in it, he is ' entering a career with no motive and am- 


Lord Lytton. 

bition in common with those of his competitors.' How many of them are 
alive now to witness the goal he has reached ? Not one, probably. He said 
then, forty-five years ago, that he had ' shaped out an empire for himself, 
which their praise cannot widen, and which their censure is- unable to de- 

Bold words for a young man invading the territories of imaginative 
literature ; but we may safely assume that Mr. Bulwer felt his power, 
though his first production, ' Falkland,' shows very little more talent than 
went to novel-making in that time of Albums and Books of Beauty, nearly 
half a century ago. 

His next work, however, showed what he was made of to peculiar 
advantage. He called it ' Mortimer, or the Adventures of a Gentleman.' 
His publishers did not like that title ; but as ' Pelham' the book went down, 
and the author at once found himself famous. 

' Pelham' was published in 1828. After it came ' The Disowned,' a 
novel of very doubtful merit, that owed its existence to the author's study 
of metaphysics. ' Out of that study,' he says, ' grew the character of 
Algernon Mordaunt.' Then came, in quick succession, ' Devereux,' ' Paul 
Clifford,' ' Eugene Aram,' a drama on that subject, ' Last Days of Pompeii,' 
' The Crisis,' ' Eienzi ;' his dramas, ' The Duchess of La Valliere,' ' The Lady 
of Lyons,' ' Eichelieu,' and ' Money.' ' Godolphin,' a story of fashionable 
life, ' The Pilgrims of the Khine,' and a political work entitled ' England 
and the English,' all appeared in 1833 ; and at this time the author of 
' Pelham' became editor of the ' New Monthly Magazine,' a post he occupied 
for a year and a half. From his contributions in that time two volumes 
of essays, called ' The Student,' were afterwards compiled. 

' Ernest Maltravers' appeared in 1837 ; ' The Sea Captain, or the Birth- 
right,' the original from which the ' Kightful Heir' was reproduced a year or 
two back, made its appearance in 1839, and was hardly to be called a 
success; but ' Money,' first produced in 1840, was most successful, and has, 
with 'Richelieu' and 'The Lady of Lyons,' held the boards ever since. 
From 1841 to the end of 1843, the world received from his most prolific 
pen, < Night and Morning,' ' Zanoni,' and ' The Last of the Barons.' Besides 
this immense labour as a novelist, Mr. Bulwer had been busily occupied by 

Lord Lytton. 

his parliamentary duties ; had made several bold attempts to earn an inde- 
pendent reputation as a poet, by the publication of several poems of consi- 
derable merit ; and had devoted himself to politics as a pamphleteer, and 
to social topics as an essayist. It is not to be wondered at that his health 
broke, happily to be restored to him again after a time. The stoiy of his 
cure is told in his ' Confessions of a Water Patient' (1845). 

In 1846, his first great work in rhyme appeared anonymously. It was 
a satire called ' The New Timon.' 

In writing a couple of years ago about it, a contemporary essayist drew 
attention to the attack on Tennyson contained in the poem, and to the 
retort of the Poet Laureate in the columns of ' Punch.' 

This reply appeared almost before the present generation of readers 
were out of their pinafores ; and as it furnishes rather a curious example of 
the amenities of literature one poet calling the other ' school-miss Alfred,' 
and being called ' you bandbox' by his angry rival in return we will quote 
the lines of both authors. Doubtless the feud has long since been healed, 
or at all events forgotten, by the parties to it. 

In ' The New Timon,' which, though published anonymously, was well 
known to be the work of the author of ' Pelham,' these lines occur : 

Not mine, not mine O Muse, forbid ! the boon 
Of borrow'd notes, the mockbird's modish tune, 
The jingling medley of purloin'd conceits, 
Outbabying Wordsworth and outglittering Keats; 
Where all the airs of patchwork pastoral chime, 
To drown the ears in Tennysonian rhyme ! 
* * 

Let school-miss Alfred vent her chaste delight 
On ' darling little rooms, so warm and light ;' 
Chant ' I'm a-weary' in infectious strain, 
And catch the ' blue fly singing i' the pane ;' 
Though praised by critics and adored by Blues, 
Though Peel with pudding plump the puling Muse, 
Though Theban taste the Saxon purse control's, 
And pensions Tennyson while starves a Knowles. 

Tennyson had had a pension of 200?. a-year granted to him most 


Lord Lytton. 

people will think justly. He did not sit silent under this attack. What 
would be the consequence of such an attack on him now, from such a hand, 
it is impossible to conceive such things are out of date. This was his 
reply, and first and last appearance in the columns of ' Punch :' 


We know him, out of Shakespeare's art, 
And those full curses which he spoke 

The old Timon, with his noble heart, 
That strongly loathing, gently broke. 

So died the Old : here comes the New. 

Kegard him : a familiar face 
I thought we knew him. What ! it's you, 

The padded man that wears the stays ; 

Who kill'd the girls and thrill'd the boys 
With dandy pathos when you wrote ; 

O Lion ! you that made a noise, 
And shook a mane en papillotes ! 

And once you tried the Muses too 

You fail'd, sir ; therefore, now you turn ! 

You fall on those who are to you 
As captain is to subaltern. 

But men of long-enduring hopes, 

And careless what the hour may bring, 

Can pardon little would-be Popes 

And Brummels, when they try to sting. 

An artist, sir, should rest in Art, 
And waive a little of his claim ; 

To have a great poetic heart 
Is more than all poetic fame. 

But you, sir, you are hard to please, 
You never look but half content, 

Nor like a gentleman at ease, 

With moral breadth of temperament. 

And what with spites, and what with fears, 

You cannot let a body be ; 
It's always ringing in your ears, 

' They call this man as great as me !' 

What profits how to understand 

The merits of a spotless shirt, 
A dapper boot, a little hand, 

If half the little soul is dirt ! 

You talk of tinsel ! Why, we see 

Old marks of rouge upon your cheeks ! 

You prate of nature ! You are he 
That split his life upon the cliques. 

A Timon you ! Nay, nay, for shame 

It looks too arrogant a jest, 
The fierce old man, to take his name ! 

You bandbox, off, and let him rest !' 

Time and a change in the mode of expressing literary amenities on the 
part of famous authors have made these verses quite curious. We introduce 
them here for this reason, and not with any desire ' to fan afresh the ancient 
flame' that prompted them. It will only be necessary for us to apologise 
for their insertion to such of our readers as may recollect their first appear- 
ance five-and-twenty years ago, or may have seen them since. 

Lord Lytton. 

There was an interval of four years in which Bulwer did not appear 
before the public as a writer of fiction; but finding, as he says, 'bad habits 
stronger than good intentions,' he dipped his novel-writing quill in ink 
again, and set to work on two very dissimilar stories 'Lucretia,' and ' The 
Caxtons.' The former having for its heroine Lucretia Dalibard, one of 
his greatest creations drew down a storm of angry criticism about his 
head. The two chief personages of the story were poisoners. To this criti- 
cism the author replied in a long and able defence of his work, and an 
explanation of what he held to be the artistic principles and ethical designs 
of fiction. 

' The Caxtons,' one of his most charming stories, followed ' Lucretia,' 
and was succeeded by ' My Novel.' At intervals of some years after one 
another, ' What will he do with it ?' and ' A Strange Story,' were published. 
The latter was completed in 1862. 

Lord Lytton has been a popular writer for over forty years, and in that 
time he has produced above a hundred volumes. He has a good claim to 
the titles of statesman and orator, in addition to those of novelist, poet, 
dramatist, and essayist. Such versatility of talent is rare indeed ; yet, in 
all these various paths of literature, the veteran peer has outstripped most 
of those who have entered the lists with him. He might now rest on the 
laurels his great talents and great industry have fairly won at the hands of 
fame. Lord Lytton then Mr. Bulwer sat in Parliament first, in 1831, 
for St. Ives ; afterwards representing Lincoln and Hertfordshire. He was 
created a baronet in July 1838 ; and in July 1866 was raised to the peer- 
age, with the title of Baron Lytton of Knebworth. 


CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, Fellow of the Royal Society, was born at Shrews- 
bury, February 12, 1809. He is the son of Dr. Robert Waring Darwin, 
F.R.S. He received his preparatory training at Shrewsbury School (under 
the care of Dr. Butler) and at Edinburgh, finally proceeding to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1831. The great 
naturalist comes of a distinguished stock. His grandfather on the mother's 
side was Josiah Wedgwood, the father of the Staffordshire art -pottery 
manufacture. On the father's side his grandsire was Dr. Erasmus Darwin, 
author of ' Zoonomia;' and it is somewhat curious that Mr. Dai-win's father 
and both his grandfathers were Fellows of the Royal Society. He married 
in 1839 his cousin, Miss Wedgwood. His first work of importance to scien- 
tific knowledge was undertaken in connection with the surveying voyage 
of H.M.S. Beagle. The vessel was commanded by Captain Fitzroy, R.N., 
who offered a berth to any naturalist who would accompany him. Darwin 
volunteered, and was accepted. The Beagle left the shores of England in 
December, 1831 ; and, after an absence of nearly five years, she returned in 
October, 1836. The cruise was of a very extensive character South 
America, Australia, and New Zealand, the Mauritius, and the Pacific 
Islands being visited in turn. About three years after the return of the 
Beagle from her voyage round the world, Darwin published his account of 
what he had seen his volume being part of Captain Fitzroy's narrative 
of this voyage, subsequently reproduced under the title of ' Journal of Re- 
searches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited 
during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World.' The other principal 
works of this eminent savant are, ' Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle ;' 
' The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs,' 1842 ; ' Geological Obser- 
vations on Volcanic Islands,' 1845; and ' On South America,' 1846. 

Darwin's great book on , the ' Origin of Species by means of Natural 


C. R. Darwin, F.RS. 

Selection' appeared at the end of the year 1859. Besides the English edi- 
tions of this remarkable theory, the book has been translated into most of 
the European languages. 

' On the Various Contrivances by which Orchids are fertilised' praised 
so highly by Canon Kingsley, in his recent book of travel in the West 
Indies was published in 1862; and early last year the long-expected 
' Descent of Man, and Selection in Eolation to Sex,' made its appearance. 

The conclusion to which the author came was that, ' at a remote period, 
man, the wonder and glory of the universe,' and the monkey, had the same 
parental relatives. This theory is at first a little shocking, and has been 
attacked as violently as it has been stoutly defended. Whatever there is of 
truth in this startling new theory of Natural Selection, whether it be almost 
of equal weight with a revelation or completely false in its assumptions, 
time may prove. The names of men of eminence, of great learning and 
great sagacity, can be catalogued both for and against it. 

We shall not enter into the abstruse discussion; but it is a simple duty 
to record here, that for close observation of the various phenomena of natural 
history, unflagging energy and perseverance in the search after truth, and 
great intellectual power, no country has produced a more earnest or more 
able student than the author of the theory of Natural Selection. 

The author's latest contribution to science and literature is ' The Ex- 
pression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,' a work which even those 
who feel determined to question its scientific accuracy or soundness will 
own is as fascinating in its style as it is ingenious in argument and various 
in its research. 


THE English school of painters in oil, at the present day, may boast of some 
branches of the art in which it is not at all behind the French, Flemings, 
and Belgians. Nay, more, there is at least one living English painter who 
is unrivalled. It is true that making likenesses of dogs and pictures of deer 
are not to be counted as among the giddy walks of high art. Better, how- 
ever, jump at a ditch and clear it than at a river and splash into the middle. 
Now, in talking of British art to a foreigner, the question he asks at the 
Academy exhibitions of every year is, Where is your high art, where is the 
grand in your art ? Well, it must be confessed that the grand is generally 
nowhere in English picture galleries, unless it happens to have been im- 
ported. Portraits, animals, fruit, and small landscape are as flourishing, 
and certainly as good, at Burlington House as at Paris or Brussels ; but the 
Englishman must admit, with a sigh, that he has no grand art to show 
among the canvases that represent the year's labours of the exponents of 
British art. The majority of our painters go on, year after year, painting 
the same old hackneyed subjects, the same familiar portraits, the same bits 
of landscape. They are so generally successful because they are careful 
never to put themselves into the way of failure. They clear the ditch, and 
are satisfied. Should they essay the river ? Should they try to rise above 
silk and satin in metallic folds, above pretty bits of landscape and portraits, 
whose mission of usefulness is to boil the family pot ? Should they try to 
rise above themselves, above the dead-level of domestic prettinesses in their 
compositions, and strive to be, some of them, worthy successors of Sir 
Joshua, and Turner, and the few other great men who have kept the British 
School above contempt ? 

The foreign artists have answered the same question abroad by setting 
an example they have a grand school, and they ask for it here. 

But while so few of our painters become great enough to earn a Euro- 


John Everett Millais. 

pean fame, how many shine with a lustre above mediocrity ! One of the 
most promising and original young painters of the English school five-and- 
twenty years ago was the subject of this notice. 

John Everett Millais was born at Southampton in 1829. In his ninth 
year he entered a drawing academy, and at eleven became a student at the 
Royal Academy. His first exhibited picture was at the Academy in 1846 
' Pizarro seizing the Inca of Peru,' an ambitious subject for a young man of 
eighteen. During his Academy course, Millais had conceived a distaste for 
their system of instruction ; and with his friends W. Holman Hunt and 
Dante Gabriel Rossetti he set off to look in nature for the effects the old 
masters had embodied in their pictures. The result of this appeal from art 
to nature was the foundation of the pre-Raphaelite school. Mr. Millais's 
principal pictures, executed while pre-Raphaelite influences were fresh upon 
him, were, in 1850, 'Our Saviour,' and 'Ferdinand lured by Ariel;' 1851, 
' Mariana in the Moated Grange,' and ' The Woodman's Daughter;' and in 
1852, ' The Huguenot,' and ' ( )phelia.' At this time Mr. Ruskin came for- 
ward, and defended the pre-Raphaelites with all the power of his eloquence 
and learning; and Millais was the founder of a little school, written up in 
' The Times,' and in his works on art by the greatest art-critic of the age. 
In 1853 Mr. Millais was elected an Associate of the Academy, and became 
R.A. in December 1863. 

There is not now very much left in his works of the pre-Raphaelite 
fever of twenty years ago; but his pictures are always artistic and original 
in composition, and highly skilful in execution. Mr. Millais stands at the 
head of original thinkers among the R.A.s. He went from art to nature, 
and he has got a rich reward for his pains. 


MR. DION BOUCICAULT is a native of Dublin, where he was born on December 
26th, 1822. He is the youngest son of Samuel Boucicault, a well-known 
merchant. His elder brothers have earned in Australia both fame and 
fortune on the colonial press as newspaper proprietors and editors : one, 
George D. Boucicault, having been for many years editor of the ' Melbourne 
Daily News;' the other, Arthur Boucicault, is now the editor and proprietor 
of the ' Northern Argus.' The late George Darley, the dramatic poet and 
essayist, was the uncle of these men so literature may be said to be 
hereditary in their family. 

In 1841, at the age of nineteen, Mr. Dion Boucicault produced his first 
dramatic work, 'London Assurance.' His later works, ' The Colleen Bawn' 
and ' Arrah-na-Pogue,' have somewhat eclipsed his earlier productions, and 
the public are inclined to regard him as a writer of melodrama only. But 
of all the dramatists who are now living and writing, he is the only one 
who has produced a series of plays of the highest class, amongst which the 
following five-act comedies and tragic plays may be recorded : ' Old 
Heads and Young Hearts,' ' The School for Scheming,' ' The Irish Heiress,' 
' Woman,' ' Love in a Maze,' ' Louis the Eleventh.' His comedy, ' London 
Assurance,' was played for one hundred and sixty-five nights in 1872 at one 
of the West-end theatres. 

Amongst the dramas which have flowed unceasingly for the last thirty 
years from his prolific pen, we remember ' The Willow Copse,' ' The Cor- 
sican Brothers,' ' Faust and Margaret,' ' The Vampire,' 'Janet Pride,' ' Used 
Up,' ' The Octoroon,' ' The Colleen Bawn,' ' The Streets of London,' ' Kip 
Van Winkle,' ' Formosa,' ' After Dark,' ' Hunted Down,' ' Arrah-na-Pogue,' 
' Jezebel,' ' The Long Strike,' ' Flying Scud,' ' Babil and Bijou,' and recently 
a little piece entitled ' Night and Morning.' 

In 1853, Mr. Boucicault married Miss Agnes Robertson, an actress, and 














Dion Bouctcault. 1 1 

went to the United States, where they resided for seven years. During 
this period he adopted the stage as a profession; but as his performance of 
Irish character proved to be his most perfect delineation, he has of late 
confined himself to that specialty. In 1860 he returned to England, and 
appeared in September in the memorable ' Colleen Bawn,' as Myles-na- 
Coppaleen. In 1864 he joined Mr. Vining at the Princess's, and produced 
' The Streets of London' and ' Arrah-na-Pogue.' Very few authors have 
been so uniformly successful, but very few possess the assemblage of powers 
and qualifications which unite in him to render success almost a certainty. 
He is riot only an experienced dramatist and actor, but his knowledge of 
all departments of the theatre and then* resources is complete. He models 
and sketches his own scenery, and contrives his mechanical effects. He 
selects the appropriate music, fashions the action of his piece, drills the 
supernumeraries and ballet. We shall not forget the effect produced by 
the crowd of Irish peasantry in 'Arrah-na-Pogue.' He exercises and 
teaches each performer; and, indeed, instils into all parts of his works 
a vigour and a life that we rarely find elsewhere. Where capacity and 
experience are thus found allied with untiring labour, it would be strange 
if the result were doubtful. 

Those who regard a theatrical life as one of idleness and ease may find 
some difficulty in reconciling their prejudice with such a programme. No 
life ought to be more methodical. 

In 1868, after an engagement in Dublin, Mr. Boucicault declared his 
intention of retiring from the stage, and devoting himself exclusively to 
literary pursuits. But his reappearance a few months ago seemed to be 
the result of a conviction that his ' second thoughts are the best ;' the more 
so that his retirement withdrew from the stage his wife, the most elegant 
and purest of our soubrettes, whose performances cannot be called delinea- 
tions : they are personifications of the characters in which she appears, so 
perfect of their kind, that no actress possibly, in her own line of characters, 
could be acceptable to the public in her stead. 


STRONG, rugged, independent; no fashioner of pretty songs modelled upon 
patterns designed by greater men, no warbler of sweet and soft love ditties? 
no dealer in unreal and exaggerated passion, no puling complainer of mock 
sorrow, no dreamy poet of conventional life, is Robert Browning. When, 
so many years ago, he set himself to make poetry the work of his life, he 
undertook the task in his own sturdy and independent way. Verse should 
be his slave, and should express his thoughts as he designed. Now, most 
poets are the slaves of verse, and can only get their thoughts expressed by 
a sort of coaxing, and in a roundabout fashion. Then, the life they describe 
is conventional: Browning's should be real. The motives and springs of 
action which they describe are simple : those of life are really complex, 
manifold, various, and overlapping each other. In Browning, we find the 
psychologist trying to show us in his analysis some of the many influences 
under which the soul acts. With most poets the soul is, as it were, a river. 
Browning recognises the fact that it is a mighty ocean. Currents flow back- 
wards and forwards : there are depths and shallows : there are storms on the 
surface and stillness below, or there are whirlpools below and calm on the 
surface. The sun shines on it, and the clouds rain upon it : perpetual change 
is going on, but it remains the same. It has infinite possibilities : it contains 
infinite treasure. It is ever in unrest, ever flowing and ebbing : ever dis- 
turbed, uncertain, and wayward. To describe, to dissect, to observe these 
currents and moods is the hardest task that poet ever set himself; and it is 
Browning's self-imposed task. If he has failed, he has failed splendidly. It 
is a defeat which is a great victory. 

All his works, from the earliest, have been in the same direction. The 
' Dramatic Lyrics' were the natural predecessors of ' The Iling and the 
Book,' and 'Hohenstiel Schwangau.' The dramas themselves, so rugged 
and uncouth, are necessary studies before the later works could be produced. 


' Please, your honours,' said he, * I'm able. 
By means of a secret charm, to draw 
All creatures living beneath the sun 
That creep or swim or fly or run 
After me so as you never saw I* 

Robert Browning. 13 

For Browning is an impersonal poet. Like Homer and Shakespeare, his 
dramatic power is so great that we lose sight of him altogether. He does 
not describe; he creates. He does not act before us; but he erects his stage, 
and presently his puppets perform upon it. His verse is rough and harsh, 
because he will be the master of it. He drags and forces the language to 
do his bidding. He presses verbs and adjectives to do service which have 
never before worked for mortal bard. He wants a word, and scorning the 
customary hack who has worked so long and worked for so many, he looks 
about to find a better, and having found him, he makes him come along and 
do his work. Thus it is that, even in his best pieces, we are conscious from 
time to time of a jolt. He is like a driver who drives furiously over rough 
ground : driving not for pleasure, but because work has to be done. If you 
want to float lazily on a summer sea, there is Tennyson; if you would glide 
down the stream without an effort, there is Byron; if you would drive along 
a smooth road, and admire the hedges on either hand, there is Pope. But 
if you are not afraid of hard work, rough work, tough work, go with Brown- 
ing, and follow him while he clears the jungle of thoughts, aims, motives, 
and passions, and shows you a human heart as poet never showed before. 

Browning is not, of course, popular. Popularity he flung to the winds 
years ago, when he first began to write. We suppose that he must long 
since have ceased even to desire that really worthless thing the admiration 
of the million. True, he aimed at theatrical success; but though his play 
of Strafford' was put on the stage with every possible care, and the principal 
part taken by Kemble himself, it was a complete failure. His dramas have 
vigour, clearness of plot, strong accentuation of character, and rapid action. 
But one feels, on reading one after the other, that they are utterly unsuited 
for acting. The reason we believe to be their deficiency in tenderness. It 
is Browning's chief failing. Sympathy he must have, because he sees so 
deeply; but it is sympathy of a sort all his own. It does not lead him to 
be tender. It is the sympathy which comes from knowledge, and not 'that 
which springs from the feeling of possible partnership in misfortune or re- 
morse. It is the pity of a strong man for the weak, mingled with a little 
contempt. But this is fatal to dramatic success. On the stage, above all 
we must be human. 

1 4 Robert Browning. 

The comparatively few who- -read Browning regard him with an admira- 
tion and intensity of affection almost unequalled in modern times. When, 
twenty years old, Tennyson's ' In Memoriam' burst into popularity, it gained 
no such enthusiastic admirers as those who hang upon the }ips of Browning. 
When Byron awoke and found himself famous, his fame was like brass beside 
gold compared with the reputation of Browning among his admirers. These 
seem few in number, when we count up those who read Tupper; but they 
are strong in quality. To begin with, it requires a certain amount we may 
say, a high amount of culture before we can appreciate the poet at all ; 
and no small effort of the intellect is needed to follow him through all the 
mazy windings and involutions of his thought. The story is well known 
how Douglas Jerrold, recovering from an illness, took up ' Sordello,' and 
began to read it. Presently he burst into tears, and threw the book away. 
' Good God !' he cried, ' I have lost my intellect !' 

A profound irritation takes possession of him who begins the study 
of Browning, against the obscurity of his style. He is obscure, he is 
involved, he is difficult, he is even at times unintelligible ; and this not 
wilfully, but because there are times when even he is not able to make 
language adequate. Words are poor weak things, after all. They 
are overworked ; we expect too much of them. They are too few in 
number. Doubtless, in a better world, our vocabulary will be more 
copious, and equal to expressing all our thoughts. And then every 
man will be a poet. But with the reading of Browning grows one's love 
for him. Eappetit vient en mangeant. And when the taste is once formed, 
there can be for his admirer but one living poet. 

It must be confessed that, in his anxiety to get the full grasp of a sub- 
ject, he is not only complex, which may be pardoned, but he is also long, 
which may not be pardoned in any poet. Who, for instance, has read 
throughout that most extraordinary collection of metaphysical speculations, 
analytical discussions, and attempts to penetrate and understand the work- 
ings of the soul, ' The Ring and the Book' ? And why, for the sake of his 
own reputation, was not Browning persuaded to compress all he had to say 
into the space of one volume ? 

We do not want to criticise his poems, or to give any complete list of 

Robert Browning. 15 

them. Let us only consider him as he appears to the impatient class of 
readers those who refuse to read ' Hohenstiel Schwangau' and ' Sordello,' 
but are capable of delighting in the shorter pieces. 

Has he humour? The 'Pied Piper' of our cartoon is an answer. 
Everybody knows it. The Piper 

His queer long coat, from heel to head, 
Was half of yellow and half of red ; 
And he himself was tall and thin, 
With sharp blue eyes, each like a pin ; 
And light loose hair, yet swarthy skin, 
No tuft on cheek, nor beard on chin 

rids the town of the rats that infest it. As he pipes, they come out of the 
houses and follow him down the street. 

Great rats, small rats, lean rats, brawny rats, 
Brown rats, black rats, gray rats, tawny rats, 
Grave old plodders, gay young friskers, 

Fathers, mothers, uncles, cousins, 
Cocking tails and pricking whiskers, 

Families by tens and dozens, 
Brothers, sisters, husbands, wives, 
Follow'd the piper for their lives. 

He leads them to the river, when all are drowned except one, who describes 
the effect of the piping : 

At the first shrill notes of the pipe 

I heard a sound as of scraping tripe, 

And putting apples, wondrous ripe, 

Into a cider-press's gripe : 
And a moving away of pickle-tub boards, 
And a leaving ajar of conserve cupboards, 
And a drawing the corks of train-oil flasks, 
And a breaking the hoops of butter casks ; 

And it seem'd as if a voice 
(Sweeter far than by harp or by psaltery 

Is breathed) call'd out, ' O rats, rejoice ! 
The world is grown to one vast dry-saltery !' 

Is he pathetic? Bead 'Count Gismond,' where his wife recalls that 
day when he saved her name at the peril of his life, and slew the foul slan- 

16 Robert Browning. 

derer. She tells it to herself with love-soft heart : one can see her eyes 
swollen with the tears of happiness, tears that do not drop while she tells 

it : 

Our eldest boy has got the clear 

Great brow : though when his brother's black ' 
Full eye shows scorn, it Gismond here ? 

And have you brought my tercel back ? 
I just was telling Adela 
How many birds it struck since May. 

Is he dramatic ? Head the ' Soliloquy in the Spanish Cloister,' when 
the monk who has nourished a foolish hatred, born of idleness and seclusion, 
gives vent to his thoughts, watching his enemy at his gardening : 

There's a great text in Galatians, 

Once you trip on it, entails 
Twenty-nine distinct damnations 

One sure if another fails. 
If I trip him just a-dying, 

Sure of heaven as sure can be, 
Spin him round, and send him flying 

Off to hell a Manichee. 

Can he stir the heart? Eead the ' Good News from Ghent,'. and the 
Cavalier songs. Can he stoop to simple love ? Read these lines : 

Nay, but you, who do not love her, 

Is she not pure gold, my mistress f 
Holds earth aught speak truth above her? 

Aught like this tress see, and this tress ; 
And this fairest tress of all, 

So fair, see, ere I let it fall ? 

Because, you spend your lives in praising ; 

To praise, you search the wide world over : 
So why not witness, calmly gazing, 

If earth holds aught speak truth above her? 
Above this tress, and this I touch, 

But cannot praise I love so much. 

Is he simple? Read Pippa Passes.' Is he strong, and rough, and 
sinewy ? Read every line which he has written. 

Robert Browning. \ j 

We have, besides the usual throng of verse-writers common to every 
age, one or two leading poets besides Browning. But there is not one who 
has a better chance of that best kind of posthumous fame : not one who 
will so certainly be remembered as the highest product of his time. 


MR. GEORGE EDMUND STREET, K.A., is, as all the world knows, the architect 
intrusted by Government with the work of erecting the new Law Courts. 

Mr. Street was born in 1824. He was educated at the Collegiate School, 
Camberwell, and learnt his profession under Mr. Owen Carter, at Win- 
chester, and also under Mr. G. G. Scott. 

He has always advocated the employment of Gothic architecture, and 
has written a good deal in support of his views. ' The Brick and Marble 
Architecture of North Italy in the Middle Ages,' and ' Some Account of 
Gothic Architecture in Spain,' are his most considerable works. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in May 1 866. 

Mr. Street has not had any opportunity of showing his power of dealing 
with a work of national importance up to the present time. Now, he has 
the opportunity of erecting one of the grandest buildings of the century. 

We are proud of our lawyers, if we feel that there is room for improve- 
ment in the system they form part of. They are essentially an English 
production, and a better article than can be found elsewhere, beyond the 
limits of these realms. 

A long-suffering race, their greatest dignitaries have consented to sit 
for many generations past in buildings called courts. These courts partake 
most of the nature of the cucumber-frame and the packing-case. They are 
hot-houses in summer and ice-houses in winter. They have draughts with- 
out ventilation, and windows without light. They are mean, dirty, confined, 
and comfortless. And they are scattered about in a curious manner, calcu- 
lated to give as much trouble as possible to the persons who transact busi- 
ness in them. 

It having been decided that new Courts of Justice should be erected on 
a scale commensurate with the importance of the uses for which they were 


G. E. Street, R.A. 19 

intended, there was a competition of the best architects, and their designs 
were submitted to a committee, composed of more or less competent judges, 
in the month of January 1867. 

The result of the investigation into the merits of the various designs 
was, that Mr. Street was intrusted with the work. 

For a time, what was aptly called the battle of the sites drowned all 
else; but when the ground on which the buildings were to be erected was 
once fixed upon, there arose a fresh debate about the merits of Mr. Street's 
designs, which has been kept up ever since with great zeal and warmth. 

This opposition to his designs proceeds, not from the public, but from 
two or three interested and self-satisfied little cliques, who cannot lose, if 
they do not gain, by in vulgar speech kicking up a row. 

Mr. Street has not made an accurate imitation of mediseval detail, but 
has designed an edifice in a style perfectly free and elastic, and one which 
lends itself easily to every useful requirement of the present age. He has 
succeeded in grouping together eighteen law courts and their appendant 
offices in a design which promises a very fine and altogether suitable build- 

Mr. Street's difficult task has been to consult the convenience of both 
branches of the legal profession, and to produce a building pleasing to the 
public who will pay for it. The dissatisfaction of professional critics is 
quite accounted for by the fact that they are dealing with the proposals of 
the selected architect. 


THE first announcement to members on returning to their seats in Parlia- 
ment last session was that their Speaker had resigned his distinguished 
post, and thrown upon them the preliminary business of selecting another 
to assume the place of First Commoner in England, and to be president of 
their councils. 

There have been excluding the present only four Speakers of the House 
of Commons since the death of George III., which occurred above half a 
century ago. When George IV. succeeded to the throne in 1820, Mr. C. 
Manners Sutton was Speaker, having been chosen to that high office in 1817, 
and he remained Speaker down to the dissolution of the first reformed Par- 
liament, in 1834. On the meeting of the next Parliament, on the 19th of 
February 1835, his re-election was opposed this first opportunity for a trial 
of strength between the two political parties being taken. On that occasion, 
the new Ministry Sir Robert Peel's was defeated, the numbers being for 
Mr. James Abercromby, 316 ; and for Mr. C. Manners Sutton, 306. The 
latter was then created Viscount Canterbury. Mr. Abercromby was Speaker 
for only a very few years. He retired at the Whitsuntide recess in 1839, 
and again there was a contest for the vacant chair. The numbers on this 
occasion were for Mr. Shaw Lefevre, 317; and for Mr. Goulburn, 299. 
Mr. Abercromby was then raised to the peerage as Baron Dunfermline. 
Mr. Shaw Lefevre remained Speaker for nearly eighteen years. At the dis- 
solution of Parliament in March 1857, he retired, and was created Viscount 
Eversley. On the meeting of the new Parliament, on the 30th of April 
1857, Mr. J. Evelyn Denison was unanimously chosen Speaker. Mr. Deni- 
son therefore presided over the deliberations of the House of Commons for 
nearly fifteen years. 

Mr. Denison was born in the year 1800, and was educated at Eton and 
at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1823. In the same year, 


' Mr. Speaker! 21 

he was returned to Parliament for Newcastle-under-Lyme. On the forma- 
tion of Canning's Administration, Mr. Denison was appointed one of the 
Lords of the Admiralty. 

At this time the question of Koman-Catholic emancipation agitated 
the rival political parties of the day, and Mr. Denison was a constant ad- 
herent to the claims of the Roman Catholics. 

The death of Canning led to a change of the Administration; and Mr. 
Denison relinquished his post at the Admiralty Board. Preferring an in- 
dependent political career to the responsibilities of office, he remained in 
privacy, although several Administrations sought his services. 

In 1830 Mr. Denison was returned for Hastings. In 1831, after the 
lamentable death of Mr. Huskisson, he was invited to stand for Liverpool; 
and, at the general election of 1831, he was returned for that borough, and 
also for the county of Nottingham ; but he elected to sit for the latter. 

During two Parliaments he represented the borough of Mai ton ; and in 
1857 he was returned for North Nottinghamshire, for which place he has 
since continued the member. Mr. Denison took an active part in the con- 
duct of the private business of the House, and, as we have just mentioned, 
on the retirement of Mr. Shaw Lefevre he was, in 1857, unanimously chosen 
Speaker; being afterwards unanimously elected in 1859 and in 1866. 

Mr. Denison married, in 1827, the third daughter of the Duke of Port- 

The emolument of the Speaker, it may be added, consists of a furnished 
house in the New Palace at Westminster, and a standing salary of 50001. 
a year, besides other collateral advantages in the way of valuable pieces of 
Crown patronage which fall to his disposal from time to time. 

Mr. Denison, on retiring from the Speakership, was raised to the peerage, 
with the title of Viscount Ossington, of Ossington, in the county of Notts. 

J. L. TO OLE. 

THE eminent comedian, Mr. John Laurence Toole, is a native of the city of 
London, and was born, as he sometimes jokingly says, ' of poor but dis- 
honest parents, you know,' in the year 1831. He is the sou of the late 
celebrated toastmaster, who distinguished himself as much by his ' Silence, 
gentlemen, if you please,' and by his good and genial qualities, as his son 
has since done on the boards. 

Mr. Toole received his education at the City of London School, and 
was removed thence at the usual age to become a clerk in a merchant's 
office, His taste for the drama appears to have developed itself very early 
in life, for at this time he became a member of the ' City Histrionic Club,' 
where he soon became very popular. The appearances of the amateur 
actor were hailed with applause at several metropolitan literary institu- 
tions, where he performed in various characters. His successes at Wai- 
worth, Aldersgate- street, Hackney, Crosby Hall, and other places, caused 
Mr. Toole to lay down his pen and put on the buskin as a professional 

His first appearance on the stage of a regular theatre was at Ipswich, 
on the occasion of a benefit, where under an assumed name he played 
the part of Silvester Daggerwood. This assumption was completely suc- 
cessful. On his return to town, Mr. Toole played as an amateur at the 
Haymarket, for Mr. F. Webster's benefit, taking the character of Simmons 
in the ' Spitalfields Weaver.' After this performance he gave up his com- 
mercial pursuits, and took to the stage for good. 

His debut as a professional was made at the Queen's Theatre, Dublin, 
on the 2d of October 1852 now twenty years ago. Since that date Mr. 
Toole's career has been a series of successes. From Dublin, where he was 
well received, Mr. Toole went to Edinburgh, and thence to Glasgow. 

In London his first engagement was at the St. James's Theatre, then 



y. L. Toole. 23 

under the management of Mrs. Seymour. Here he played in ' My Friend 
the Major,' 'Boots at the Swan,' 'Honours before Titles' in all of which 
his rendering of the characters he portrayed was perfectly satisfactory to 
audiences and critics. 

A reengagement took him to Edinburgh, after which he appeared at 
the Lyceum, and made a success of the character of Fanfarronade in ' Bel- 

After a provincial tour, Mr. Toole commenced an engagement at the 
Adelphi, and played with the greatest success in ' Ici on Parle Franc,ais,' 
' Willow Copse,' ' Birthplace of Podgers,' ' Good for Nothing,' ' Bengal 
Tiger,' and other pieces. 

At the Adelphi, great successes were made in the adaptation of ' The 
Haunted Man' by his performance of Mr. Tetterby, and of a frightened 
servant in a miserable piece by Mr. Boucicault, called ' The Phantom.' The 
character saved the piece. After leaving the Adelphi Theatre, Mr. Toole 
became a member of Mr. W. H. Liston's company at the new Queen's, and 
contributed largely to the success of that undertaking in the production of 
several important original dramas, among which perhaps the most notable 
was that of Mr. Byron's ' Dearer than Life,' in which the actor's representa- 
tion of Michael Garner again presented him to the public as the legitimate 
successor of the late Mr. Robson. The popularity of this drama has been 
very great, and it still continues to be a great attraction, not only through 
Mr. Toole's provincial engagements, but also when put forward in London, 
as it still occasionally is. Another successful production was that of the 
play of ' Not Guilty, 1 in which Mr. Toole had a prominent character. Nor 
should we forget a most admirable performance of his in the charming little 
drama called ' The Poor Nobleman,' which greatly contributed to the suc- 
cess of the piece. Space will not allow of our following Mr. Toole through 
those many original pieces in which the public have indorsed his qualities 
as an actor ; but we must mention with a special word of praise the per- 
formance of Dick Dolland, in ' Uncle Dick's Darling;' and of John Lock- 
wood, in the later drama called ' Wait and Hope,' produced a season or 
two back at the Gaiety. 

Mr. Toole is almost unrivalled in his line at present. In comedy and 

24 y> L. Toole. 

farce, in humour and pathos, his acting is excellent. He is always amus- 
ing, often affecting. There are no parts that show him to greater advant- 
age than such characters as Caleb Plummer in ' Dot,' or Harry Coke in 
' Off the Line.' Of this impersonation, Mr. Toole ma,kes one of those 
perfect pictures of everyday life of the lower class in which he has so often 
proved himself a consummate artist. But in low comedy and broad farce it 
would be difficult to find an actor of equal merit. He has identified him- 
self of late with the character of Paul Pry, in Poole's celebrated play of 
that name. As Paul Pry he keeps his audience in a roar whenever he is 
on the stage; but he renders the character of the inquisitive gentleman 
in a quiet and unobtrusive way, quite original in itself. In Mr. Toole's 
hands, Paul's curiosity is a disease. He does not know of his peculiarity, 
and his ' I hope I don't intrude,' and ' I just dropped in,' fall not as gag 
phrases, but as the natural remarks of a man who feels the importance of 
his business must make his company desirable, or at all events tolerable. 

Although, perhaps, the character is not naturally so well suited to Mr. 
Toole as many others of his well-known parts, he has completely made 
Paul his own. It is a part in which the actor mellows with time. Mr. 
Toole has played it many times, and his representation of the prying gossip 
is now admirable. It is one of the most finished and perfect of his efforts : 
from the beginning to the end of the piece he seems never to miss a single 



MONSIEUR Paul Gustave Dore was born at Strasburg in the month of 
January 1832. At an early age he was taken to Paris by his father, and 
there his education was completed. When quite a boy, he contributed to 
the ' Journal pour Eire' little comic sketches. Of his pictures, among the 
first to attract the attention of connoisseurs were ' La Bataille d'Alma,' ex- 
hibited in 1855, and ' La Bataille d'Inkermann,' exhibited in 1857. 

M. Dore's works are well known in this country, where they have been 
exhibited both as contributions to exhibitions of pictures by various artists, 
and also a number of his oil pictures forming a gallery by themselves. 

M. Dore has turned his great powers to drawings on the wood; and, as 
an illustrator of books of imagination by the great authors, is almost un- 
rivalled in popularity. His pictorial interpretations of Rabelais, of Balzac's 
wild ' Contes Didactiques,' and of that grand work of fiction, ' The Wander- 
ing Jew,' are well known and deservedly admired for their originality and 
realisation of the author's ideal; though the artist's illustrations to the 
' Divina Commedia' of Dante, to Cervantes' perennial ' Don Quixote,' to 
IMilton, and to the Holy Bible, are better known in this country. 

Though French by birth, M. Dore is almost an Englishman by adoption, 
and is perfectly conversant with English places arid people. He has drawn 
a history of the metropolis under the title of ' London : a Pilgrimage.' 

M. Dore received, on 15th of August 1861, the decoration of the Cross 
of the Legion of Honour. 

Whatever branch of his art his fame in his own country may ultimately 
rest upon, here the name of Gustave Dore will always be associated in the 
minds of those who were among the first to recognise his great talent, and 


Gustave Dore. 27 

to extend to him their support with his wonderful powers of illustration. 
The humorous scenes of Cervantes, the lofty fancy of Milton, the splendid 
imagery of the prophetic authors of Sacred Writ, have received from Dore 
something nearly approaching to an interpretation of their authors' ideal. 


WE suppose that nobody will deny that the author of The Earthly Paradise' 
has earned the right to be numbered among English poets. Whether his 
place is above or below Swinburne it is difficult to decide, as opinions differ 
very much as to the merits of Mr. Swinburne's poems. The style of Mr. 
Morris's verses is quite as good as that of Mr. Swinburne's, and he has the 
farther advantage of being pure in tone, while he is classical in theme. 

The first work of his to attract attention in a considerable degree was 
' The Life and Death of Jason,' a long poem, divided into sixteen books. 
As its title imports, it is founded on the adventures of the hero Jason, son 
of ^Eson, king of lolchos, whose romantic pursuit of the golden fleece, and 
love affairs with Medea and Glauce, have formed the base of so many poetic 
edifices. ' The Earthly Paradise,' Mr. Morris's chief work, has, although 
published at intervals and of great length, already become popular. On 
this work his claim to the fame of a poet must rest; and the very favour- 
able reception the poem has met with will warrant the author in assuming 
that he is a poet of considerable pretensions to a fellowship with Tenny- 
son and Browning. 

We shall not try to review such a voluminous poem as ' The Earthly 
Paradise' at length; and we shall therefore content ourselves with stating 
that, to people who have a taste for a poem in four or five volumes, the 
perusal of ' The Earthly Paradise' will give great pleasure and some profit. 
The argument of the prologue is, ' Certain gentlemen and mariners of 
Norway, having considered all that they had heard of the Earthly Paradise, 
set sail to find it; and after many troubles, and the lapse of many years, 
came old men to some western land of which they had never before heard. 
There they died, when they had dwelt there certain years, much honoured 
of the strange people.' 

That such a theme gives a fine opportunity to a discursive poet is patent, 


William Morris. 29 

and Mr. Morris has made good use of it. Many subjects are treated in the 
prologue, and perhaps it is as good as anything in the poem. A general 
lack of purpose will strike the reader; but for this they were prepared by 
the author in his introduction, where he says : 

Dreamer of dreams, born out of my due tune, 

Why should I strive to set the crooked straight 1 

Let it suffice me that my running rhyme 

Beats with light ring against the ivory gate, 
Telling a tale, not too importunate, 

To those who in the sleepy region stay, 

Lull'd by the singer of an empty day. 

* * * 

So with this earthly Paradise it is, 

If ye will read aright, and pardon me, 
Who strive to build a shadowy isle of bliss 

Midmost the beating of the steely sea, 

Where toss'd about all hearts of men must be ; 
Whose ravening monsters mighty men shall slay, 
Not the poor singer of an empty clay. 


IN the middle ages, the work of women was clearly defined and unmis- 
takable. If they were of the lower class, they made the clothes, spun the 
linen, kept the house; if of the higher, they received the guests, they 
embroidered, they presided at tournaments, and they were the family doc- 
tors. They knew the virtues of those simple herbs which they gathered 
in the garden and the fields; from these they concocted plasters and 
poultices for bruises and hurts, which must have been common enough in 
those days. Nicolette, in the old French novel, handles Aucassin's shoul- 
der till she gets the joint into its proper place again, when she applies a 
poultice of soothing herbs. For medical purposes perhaps also for a 
secret means of warming their hearts when they grew old they brewed 
strong waters out of many a flower and fruit. All the winter long when 
there was little fighting, and therefore few disorders, save those due to too 
much or too little feeding they stayed in the castle and studied the art of 
healing. With the spring came dances, hawking, garland-making, sitting 
in the sunshine and under the shade, while the minstrels sang them ditties, 
and the knights made love, and preparations were made for the next tour- 

Here, it seems, was a fair and equitable distribution of labour. Both 
man and woman had to work. Why not? Man fought, tilled, traded. 
Women spun, kept house, and healed. Surgical operations, if any were 
required, were conducted in the handiest and simplest method possible 
with the axe; as when Leopold of Austria had his leg amputated at a 
single blow, and died from loss of blood. 

There came a time when the art of healing passed into men's hands. 
Then women had one occupation the less. They made up for this at first 
by becoming scholars. Everybody knows about the scholarship of Lady 
Jane Grey and Queen Elizabeth. The ladies of the sixteenth century read 



Dr. Garret t Anderson. 31 

everything and knew everything. Then, too, under the auspices of Ma- 
dame de Kambouillet, was born modern society. Learning went out of 
fashion as social amusements developed. Then women substituted play 
for work, and made amusement their occupation. The arts of house- 
wifery vanished with that of healing. The occupations of embroidery and 
spinning disappeared with that of study. In the eighteenth century, woman 
was either a fine lady or a household servant. If the former, she gambled, 
dressed, received, and went out ; if the latter, she cooked and washed, and 
tended the children. Of course, the women of the last century accepted, 
patiently enough, the role thrust upon them by circumstances. They 
were submissive to their lords, were thankful for their kindnesses, and for- 
gave them their many sins. And it was not till early in the present century 
that the blue stocking appeared, to become a subject of ridicule. This was 
unfortunate, because the blue stockings, in a desultory, hesitating way, only 
tried to recover a portion of woman's lost ground. For a long time women 
who studied were looked upon with disfavour and suspicion. Why could 
not they make samplers and puddings, and play on the harpsichord ? 
Some of them poor things ! were obliged to learn in order to become 
governesses. But, really, what more ridiculous than that a woman should 
learn the same things as a man ? Above all, why seek to change things ? 

Social prejudices are almost as hard to eradicate as those of religion. 
It was not till quite lately that the feeling against woman's rights as re- 
gards education was successfully combated; and even now there are hun- 
dreds of respectable parents who would far rather send their daughters to 
a fashionable boarding-school at Brighton, where they are sure to learn 
nothing, than to a place like the Hitchin College, where they will be taught 
with the same accuracy and thoroughness as Cambridge honour men. 

We go up and down like a see-saw. After two hundred years our 
women are going to become students again ; and after three hundred yearr 
they are going to become physicians again. Foremost among lady doctors 
is Mrs. Anderson. In the profession which she has taken up, particularly 
in those branches to which she is understood to have chiefly devoted her 
.attention the diseases of women and children we wish her all the suc- 
cess that her courage and ability deserve. More : we hope that she is the 

32 '' Dr. Garret t Anderson. 

forerunner of many other ladies who will take up the art of healing. Wo- 
men can become at once nurses and doctors; their gentleness not greater 
than that of some men, in spite of what is said is more uniform : they 
have more patience ; they are ready to devote more time. Only the con- 
ditions of things are changed. It is no longer necessary to know the pro- 
perties of simples; it is necessary also to study the anatomy and framework 
of the body, to gain experience in the symptoms of disease, to go through 
a great deal that is repulsive and hard. It is no light thing to become a 
physician. We do not think that there will ever be a large proportion of 
women who will have the courage to face the difficulties and brave the 
labour. Many may, however, learn enough to make themselves invaluable 

So will be restored the mediaeval condition. Women will occupy them- 
selves in household work, in study and literature, in looking after and edu- 
cating children, in social amusements, in dances, music, and love-making. 
Man poor, dear, patient animal ! goes on always the same : working for 
those he loves, striving to keep the nest warm, and caring little enough for 
aught else. 

As for the rest, things are in a transition state, and consequently un- 
comfortable and disagreeable. Women, finding that their sphere is enlarged, 
want, naturally enough, to get as much as they can. Nor have they yet 
learned how to limit their aims to their strength. If they are prepared to 
give up love and marriage, or to subordinate these with, of course, the 
welfare of their children to other things; if, farther, they are willing to 
give up those social amenities to which they are accustomed the concession 
of small things by men, the deference and respectful bearing of gentlemen 
towards them then, by all means, let women go upon platforms, and fight 
in the arena, side by side with their brothers. Life is a great battle, in 
which, from time immemorial, women have been spared. If they want to 
enter it, let them come. But the battle is for existence : they will be struck 
down ruthlessly; and they will enter it, however well prepared and armed, 
with whatever ability of brain, with a feeble and delicate frame. 

Meantime, it is all windbags and nonsense. A few women have got up 
a cry partly from a wish to get notoriety, partly from a perfectly intel- 

Dr. Garrett Anderson. 33 

ligible, if unreasonable, revolt against their own position, partly against one 
or two real grievances. They are the shrieking sisterhood. Their voices 
alone are heard. Their ranks are not increasing; but they make such a 
confounded clatter, that we quiet men believe the numbers to be tenfold 
what they really are. 

The way to meet them is to argue as little as possible; to take away as 
much as possible all power to do mischief (by interfering in subjects in which, 
rightly or wrongly, they can know little, they have done a good deal of 
mischief already) ; to help all women, in every station, to honest work; to 
secure for women proper pay for work; to concede all that we can. Let 
us acknowledge at once that women can do everything; we may then invite 
them to illustrate their position. For it remains with them to establish the 
theory that they can do everything. Meantime, let us remember, and 
whisper among ourselves, that they have not yet produced in the first rank, 
be it remembered a single musician, painter, poet, metaphysician, scholar^ 
mathematician, chemist, physicist, physician, mechanician, or historian. 
One great, very great, novelist is a woman George Sand. Second- and 
third-rate people of course are common as blackberries. 

The best thing that can happen to a woman is to attract the love of a 
man : the best thing for a man is to love a woman. All the female men in 
the world cannot alter the laws of nature. 

Meanwhile, Mrs. Anderson, who did not shine when she left her own 
line and went to the School Board, has, we hope, a successful and honour- 
able career before her in her most noble and womanly work. 


THE reputation of a very successful literary man might have been made on 
a fourth of what the ex-editor of the ' Athenaeum' has done. In the cata- 
logue of the British Museum excluding his last work, ' The Switzers'- 
there are fifty-four titles bearing Mr. Dixon's name. He has, from his first 
literary effort a play to his last book of travel, written successively his- 
tory, biography, essays, and travel, besides having filled the post of editor 
of the first among literary papers. His books have been translated into 
several of the languages of Europe, and there have been many American 
editions of his popular works. 

He is the son of Mr. Abner Dixon, of Holmfirth and Kirk Burton, in 
the West Hiding of Yorkshire, and was born June 30, 1821. Early in 
life, Mr. Dixon was associated with Douglas Jerrold and the great writers 
of that day; and, after publishing some papers in the ' Daily News' on the 
' Literature of the Lower Orders,' and on ' London Prisons,' he wrote a 
' Life of John Howard,' a book that at once attracted the attention it de- 
served, and passed through three editions in the first year after its publica- 
tion this was in 1849. 

' Robert Blake, Admiral and General at Sea,' appeared in 1852. Mr. 
Dixon was also one of the most energetic and able promoters of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. His latest works are ' New America,' ' Her Majesty's 
Tower,' ' Spiritual Wives,' ' Free Russia,' and ' The Switzers.' These works 
as their popularity attests are written in a manner very pleasing to the 
general reader. The style is lively and discursive one in which new in- 
formation on topics of the greatest interest is marshalled with the skill of 
a practised pen, without the matter ever becoming dry, or the pages tedious 
to the reader, who, resigning himself to the spell of the writer's power, 
visits with him the places and people he has described with so much fresh- 
ness and originality. 




THERE is to be seen at about ten o'clock on most mornings, in one or other 
of the streets leading in a direct line from Waterloo-bridge to the British 
Museum, an elderly gentleman who walks as if his feet were very tender, 
and whom most of the persons he meets turn round to stare after. This 
is Professor Owen on his way to his favourite studies at the Museum, where 
he is superintendent of the Natural History departments. 

Richard Owen, Fellow of the Royal Society, enjoys a European reputa- 
tion as a comparative anatomist. He was born in Lancaster, in 1804, and 
educated at the University of Edinburgh. In 1826 he became a member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, and nine years later was appointed Hun- 
terian Professor and Conservator of the Museum at the College. 

Among other works of importance which Mr. Owen has written may 
be mentioned ' Odontography' (published 1840); 'Memoir of a Gigantic 
Extinct Sloth,' ' Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy of the Invertebrate 
Animals' (1843) ; ' History of British Fossils, Mammals, and Birds.' ' On 
the Megatherium,' ' On the Gorilla,' ' On the Dodo,' are among his recent 
works; besides many other works on various branches of the science of 
which he is the greatest living exponent. Professor Owen has written 
many papers for the Transactions of the Royal and various other learned 
societies. Mr. Owen is a Chevalier of the Prussian Order of Merit, and in 
1855 he was decorated by the Emperor Napoleon with the Cross of the 
Legion of Honour. He is one of the eight foreign members of the French 
Institute, and, besides, is a Fellow or Associate of every learned and scien- 
tific society of distinction at home and abroad. 



IT is not our intention in this notice to attempt any review of Mr. Disraeli's 
political career. As cartoons in this book are chiefly portraitures of men 
of letters, it is of the literary achievements of the leader of the Conservative 
party that we propose to speak. The ex-Premier is the author of a num- 
ber of clever novels, with which most readers doubtless are perfectly fami- 
liar. The first of this series of works of fiction was ' Vivian Grey,' published 
when the author was quite a boy. It has been followed by ' The Young- 
Duke,' ' Contarini Fleming,' ' Henrietta Temple,' ' Yenetia,' ' Tancred,' 
' Alroy,' ' Ixion,' ' Sybil,' ' Coningsby,' and ' Lothair.' 

' Vivian Grey' at once seized the attention of the town, and its suc- 
cessors maintained, if they did not increase, the reputation of the author. 
They have all been very popular, have been many times reprinted, and sold 
at all prices, from the conventional guinea and a half form down to the 
popular ' Companion Library' edition, at a shilling a novel. 

Mr. Disraeli comes of an old Jewish family; and the pedigrees of such 
families are of a length compared with which those of the princes of the 
blood of any of our European reigning families become insignificant. 

His grandfather, Benjamin Disraeli, settled in England in 1748. He 
was an Italian descendant from one of those Hebrew families whom the 
Inquisition forced to emigrate from the Spanish Peninsula at the end of the 
fifteenth century. His ancestors, who were of the Sephardim, 'had dropped 
their Gothic surname' on their settlement in Italy ; ' and, grateful to the 
God of Jacob, who had sustained them through unprecedented trials and 
guarded them through unheard-of perils, they assumed the name of DISRAELI 
a name never borne before or since by any other family in order that 
their race might for ever be recognised.' For two centuries they were 
merchants at Venice; but England offering many advantages, in the middle 
of the eighteenth century the present Mr. Disraeli's great-grandfather deter- 


The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 39 

rained on sending his younger son, Benjamin, to settle in this country of 
political quiet, and civil and religious freedom. This first of the English 
Disraelis is described by his distinguished grandson as a man 'of ardent 
character; sanguine, courageous, speculative, and fortunate; with a temper 
which no disappointment could disturb, and a brain amid reverses full of 
resource.' No wonder, then, that at middle age he had made a fortune, 
and settled in a country house at Enfield, where he entertained Sir Horace 
Mann and many celebrities of the day. He died in 1817, at the ripe age 
of ninety, and left one son, who had ' disappointed all his plans, and who, 
to the last hour of his life, was an enigma to him.' This was Isaac Disraeli, 
the father of the future Prime Minister, and the famous author of ' The 
Curiosities of Literature' and kindred works books that will live long after 
his son's works of fiction have lost their ephemeral glory. 

Isaac was of course designed by his father for a merchant ; but having 
written a poem, he was consigned to his father's correspondent at Amster- 
dam, like a bale of goods, to be placed at a college there. On his return to 
England, at the age of eighteen, his genius broke the bonds of parental 
control. He wrote a long poem against Commerce, which strange senti- 
ment in the mouth of his race as we know them he called the corrupter 
of man. He packed up his effusion, and took it to the emperor of the world 
of letters, Dr. Johnson. Young Isaac Disraeli left it himself in the hands of 
the Doctor's negro, at the door of the house in Bolt-court, Fleet-street; 
but the Doctor was then too ill to read anything, and it was returned to 
the author a week after. 

From this time Isaac Disraeli began to lead the life of a student. He 
was fortunate in making the acquaintance of amiable and cultivated men, 
who introduced him to congenial society. 

His marriage did not alter his recluse habits of life : he continued to 
live almost entirely in his own library. This gentleman, having had some 
difference with his synagogue, failed to teach Judaism to the future Prime 
Minister; and Samuel Rogers, the banker poet, finding the boy, at six years 
old, without any religious instruction, took him to Hackney church. From 
that time Mr. Disraeli has been a member of the Church of England. 
Though born of Jewish parents, he has never held the Jewish faith, but 

40 The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 

has been all his life a member of the Christian Church. Indeed, his father, 
Isaac Disraeli, was buried in the chancel of the village church, near his own 
seat in Buckinghamshire; so it would appear that, if he had made no formal 
profession of any change of religion, he died a Christian. 

Mr. Disraeli, in his youth, was articled to a firm of attorneys, who car- 
ried on business in Old Jewry, in the city of London ; but he did not remain 
to complete the term for which he was articled. His genius pointed to 
greater things; and until he himself contradicted the report, when Mr. 
Grant's ' History of the Newspaper Press' appeared, it had always been 
supposed that he had devoted some considerable time at this period of his 
life to writing for the newspapers. This, however, was a mistake. 
Mr. Disraeli must be allowed to know best ; and it appears that his first 
literary effort was ' Vivian Grey.' Though the style is turgid, there are 
strong outbursts of imagination in the novel. ' Books,' says the author, 
' written by boys, which pretend to give a picture of manners, arid to deal 
in knowledge of human nature, can be at the best but the results of imagi- 
nation, acting upon knowledge not acquired by experience.' This sentence 
precisely describes the character of his first novel. Yet, read by the light 
of events which have come to pass since he wrote it, ' Vivian Grey' is very 
full of interest. The hero is so like the author, that it is not easy to sepa- 
rate them. ' Mankind, then,' says Vivian Grey, ' is my game. At this 
moment, how many a powerful noble only wants wit to be a Minister; and 
what wants Vivian Grey to attain the same end ? That noble's influence.' 
And, in due time, the creator of ' Vivian' became a Minister ; for in Feb- 
ruary 1852, Lord Derby made Mr. Disraeli his Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
an office he held a second time when Lord Derby was made Premier in 
1858-9 ; and a third time he filled the office under his veteran friend and 
leader in 1866. As everybody knows, in 1868, in the month of February, 
Lord Derby's health compelled him to resign, and her Majesty was pleased 
to send for Mr. Disraeli, who thus had conferred upon him the crowning 
distinction of his life, the greatest post the Sovereign has it in her power 
to bestow. 

But Mr. Disraeli did not find his way into the House he was afterwards 
to lead without a fight for his seat. In 1829, after the very rapid produc- 

The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 41 

tion of his earlier novels, the brilliant young litterateur left England, spent 
the winter in Constantinople, and visited Syria, Egypt, and Nubia, before 
his return in 1831. He came back with new views of life and politics. He 
had penetrated the Asian Mystery, and was something between a Tory and 
a Whig. Kecommended by Hume and O'Connell, he tried Wycombe three 
times for a seat in Parliament, and was unsuccessful. Then he turned up 
at Taunton, and discovered himself, what he is now, a Conservative; and 
in the ardour of his electioneering eloquence attacked the Irish demagogue. 

Politics ran higher then than now, and O'Connell replied: ' Mr. Disraeli 
calls me traitor : my answer to that is that he is a liar. He is a liar in 
action and in words. His life is a living lie.' This was not quite strong 
enough. He went on: 'When I speak of Mr. Disraeli as a Jew, I mean 
not to taunt him on that account. Better ladies and gentleman than 
amongst the Jews I have never met with. They were once the chosen 
people of God. There were miscreants among them, however ; and it must 
certainly have been from one of those that Disraeli descended. He pos- 
sesses just the qualities of the impenitent thief who died upon the Cross, 
whose name must have been Disraeli. For aught I know, the present 
Disraeli is descended from him ; and, with the impression that he is, I now 
forgive the heir-at-law of the blasphemous thief that died upon the Cross.' 

O'Connell's coarse wit stopped at nothing ; but he had a foeman worthy 
of his steel in the younger Disraeli, as he was called then. O'Connell was 
bound by a vow not to fight a duel ; and Disraeli called upon the son of the 
demagogue to assume ' his vicarious duties of yielding satisfaction for the 
insults which his father lavished with impunity on his political opponents.' 

Morgan O'Connell did not accept the challenge ; and Disraeli wrote 
Daniel O'Connell a letter, in which he said : 

' Although you have long since placed yourself out of the pale of civi- 
lisation, still I am one that will not be insulted even by a Yahoo without 
chastising IT. ... I called upon your son to assume his vicarious office of 
yielding satisfaction for his shrinking sire. I admire your scurrilous allu- 
sions to my origin. . . You say that I was once a Radical and am now a 
Tory. My conscience acquits me of ever having deserted a political friend, 
or of ever having changed a political opinion. I have nothing to appeal to 


42 The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 

but the good sense of the people. A death's head and cross bones were 
not blazoned on my banners.' 

He called the great demagogue a ' big beggarman,' who gathered ' rint' 
from the wretched Irish peasantry by promising to procure a ' repale' for 
them, which he knew he should never get. 

Altogether, Mr. Disraeli had much the best of the correspondence. Few 
men could write a better letter of accusation or of vindication; and he has 
been charged with the authorship of the ' Runnymede' letters, which 
appeared in the ' Times.' They are inferior to the letters of ' Junius,' but 
they display great powers of invective; and, on internal evidence only, 
most people would say they were written by Disraeli. 

Mr. Disraeli first sat in Parliament for Maidstone, in 1832; and his 
speeches are, perhaps, the best efforts of his genius. He is a splendid Par- 
liamentary debater, and a perfect master of epigrammatic phrases that stick 
wherever they are applied. When he wrote ' Tancred,' it was his opinion 
that ' we sadly lack a new stock of public images. The current similes, if 
not absolutely counterfeit, are quite worn out. They have no intrinsic 
value, and serve only as counters to represent the absence of ideas. The 
critics should really call them in.' No man has done more to replace the 
old images with new ones than the author of ' Tancred.' Perhaps ' Tancred' 
is the best book of imagination, and ' Coningsby' of political life, that their 
author has produced. The style of all his novels is sparkling and clever 
sometimes, at others turgid and over-daubed with colour. 

It is curious that the best specimen of Disraeli's style that can be given 
in a few lines is not Disraeli's at all, but Thackeray's. In his ' Novels by 
Eminent Hands,' he has ' Codlingsby : by the Right Hon. B. Shrewsberry' 
a wonderfully good imitation in caricature of Disraeli's style. 

They entered a moderate-sized apartment indeed llolywell-street is not above a hundred 
yards long, and this chamber was not more than half that length and fitted up with the simple 
taste of its owner. 

The carpet was of white velvet laid over several webs of Aubusson, Ispahan, and Axminster, 
so that your foot gave no more sound as it trod upon the yielding plain than the shadow which 
followed you of white velvet painted with flowers, arabesques, and classic figures by Sir William 
Ross, J. M. W. Turner, R.A., Mrs. Mee, and Paul Delaroche. The edges were wrought with 
seed-pearl, Valenciennes lace, and bullion. The walls were hung with cloth of silver, embroidered 

The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 43 

with gold figures, over which were worked pomegranates, polyanthuses, and passion-flowers, in 
ruby, amethyst, and smaragd. The drops of dew which the artificers had sprinkled on the flowers 
were of diamonds. The hangings were overhung with pictures yet more costly. Giorgione the 
gorgeous, Titian the golden, Rubens the ruddy and pulpy (the Pan of painting), some of Murillo's 
beatified shepherdesses, who smile on you out of darkness like a star ; a few score of first-class 
Leonardos, and fifty of the masterpieces of the patron of Julius and Leo, the imperial genius of 
Urbino, covered the walls of the little chamber. Divans of carved amber, covered with ermine, 
went round the room, and in the midst was a fountain pattering and babbling into jets of double- 
distilled otto of roses. 

'Pipes, Goliath!' Rafael said gaily, to a little negro with a silver collar (he spoke to him in 

his native tongue of Dongola) ; ' and welcome to our snuggery, my Codlingsby.' 


Her hair had that deep glowing tinge in it which has been the delight of all painters, and 
which therefore the vulgar sneer at. It was of burning auburn, meandering over her fairest 
shoulders in twenty thousand minute ringlets ; it hung to her waist, and below it. A light-blue 
velvet fillet, clasped with a diamond aigrette, valued at two hundred thousand tomauns, and bought 
from Lieutenant Vicovich, who had received it from Dost Mahomet, with a simple bird of Para- 
dise, formed her head-gear. A sea-green cymar, with short sleeves, displayed her exquisitely- 
moulded arms to perfection, and was fastened by a girdle of emeralds over a yellow-satin frock. 
Pink-gauze trousers, spangled with silver, and slippers of the same colour as the band which 
clasped her ringlets (but so covered with pearls, that the original hue of the charming papoosh 
disappeared entirely), completed her costume. She had three necklaces on, each of which would 
have dowered a princess ; her fingers glittered with rings to their rosy tips ; and priceless bracelets, 
bangles, and armlets wound round an arm that was winter than the ivory grand-piano on whicli 
it leaned. 

Compare Thackeray's admirable caricature with Disraeli's own serious 
production : 

A fountain rose in the centre of the quadrangle, which was surrounded by arcades. Ranged 
round this fountain, in a circle, were twenty saddled steeds of the highest race, each held by a 
groom, and each attended by a man-at-arms. All pressed their hands to their hearts as the Emir 
entered, but with a gravity of countenance which was never for a moment disturbed. Whether 
their presence were habitual, or only for the occasion, it was unquestionably impressive. Here 
the travellers dismounted, and Fakredeen ushered Tancred through a variety of saloons, of which 
the furniture, though simple, as becomes the East, was luxurious, and, of its kind, superb ; floors 
of mosaic marbles, bright carpets, arabesque ceilings, walls of carved cedar, and broad divans of 
the richest stuffs of Damascus. 

' And this divan is for you,' said Fakredeen, showing Tancred into a chamber, which opened 
upon a flower-garden, shaded by lemon trees. ' I am proud of my mirror,' he added, with some 
exultation, as he called Tancred's attention to a large French looking-glass, the only one in 
Lebanon. ' And this,' added Fakredeen, leading Tancred through a suite of marble chambers, 
this is your bath.' 

44 The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 

In the centre of one chamber, fed by a perpetual fountain, was a large alabaster basin, the 
edges of which were strewn with flowers just culled. The chamber was entirely of porcelain; a 
golden flower on a ground of delicate green. 

' I will send your people to you,' said Fakredeen, ' but in the mean time there are attendants here, 
who are, perhaps, more used to the duty ;' and so saying, he clapped his hands, and several servants 
appeared bearing baskets of curious linen, whiter than the snow of Lebanon, and a variety of robes.' 

And this passage is equalled by hundreds of others profusely strewn through 
all his works. 

You feel, all the while you are reading his books, that the author is 
laughing at you. There is an air of insincerity about them all ; there is not 
a passage in one of the romances that ever moved the passions of a board- 
ing-school miss. They are very unreal, and very clever; but with all the 
splendour and wealth of his Eastern imagination, Mr. Disraeli has a fine 
sense of genuine English humour. What is finer in this way than the 
talk of the two servants, Mr. Freeman and Mr. Trueman, that Tancred 
takes with him to Palestine ? They are so inimitably true as portraits of 
the English upper servant. 

When Tancred' s life is in danger in an Arab encampment where 
he is wounded and a prisoner, they come in a great state to explain that 
they don't know how his boots are to be blacked, for in the night these 
savages have drunk up all the blacking. On another occasion they go to 
stay at a ' superb Saracenic castle.' 

It strikes Freeman and Trueman thus : 

' This is the first gentleman's seat I've seen since we left England,' said Freeman. 

' There must have been a fine coming of age here,' rejoined Trueman. 

' As for that,' replied Freeman, ' comings of age depend in a manner upon meat and drink. 
They ain't in noways to be carried out with coffee and pipes. Without oxen roasted whole, and 
broached hogsheads, they ain't in a manner legal.' 

The servants' Paradise is meat and drink in England or in Palestine, 
and Tancred's gentlemen were sorely tried with the coffee and pipes. 

They are at a great feast at the castle, when the following conversation 
occurs : 

' And the most curious thing,' said Freeman to Trueman, as they established themselves under 
a pine-tree, with an ample portion of roast meat, and armed with their travelling knives and forks 
'and the most curious thing is, that they say these people are Christians ! "Who ever heard of 
Christians wearing turbans ?' 

The Right Hon. Benjamin Disraeli. 45 

' Or eating without knives and forks f added Trueman. 

' It would astonish their weak minds in the steward's room at Bellamont, if they could see all 
this, John,' said Mr. Freeman pensively. ' A man who travels has very great advantages.' 

' And very great hardships too,' said Trueman. ' I don't care for work, but I do like to have 
my meals regular.' 

' This is not bad picking, though,' said Mr. Freeman ; ' they call it gazelle, which I suppose is 
the foreign for venison.' 

' If you called this venison at Bellamont,' said Trueman, ' they would look very queer in the 
steward's room.' 

' Bellamont is Bellamont, and this place is this place, John,' said Mr. Freeman. ' The Hameer 
is a noble gentleman, every inch of him, and I am very glad my lord has got a companion of his 
own kidney. It is much better than monks and hermits, and low people of that sort, who are not 
by no means fit company for somebody I could mention, and might turn him into a Papist into 
the bargain.' 

' That would be a bad business,' said Trueman ; ' my lady could never abide that. It would 
be better that he should turn Turk.' 

' I am not sure it wouldn't,' said Mr. Freeman. ' It would be in a manner more constitutional. 
The Sultan of Turkey may send an Ambassador to our Queen, but the Pope of Rome may not.' 
' I should not like to turn Turk,' said Trueman, very thoughtfully. 

'I know what you are thinking of, John,' said Mr. Freeman, in a serious tone. 'You are 
thinking if anything were to happen to either of us in this heathen land, where we should get 
Christian burial.' 

'Lord love you, Mr. Freeman, no I wasn't. I was thinking of a glass of ale.' 
'Ah!' sighed Freeman, 'it softens the heart to think of such things away from home, as we 
are. Do you know, John, there are times when I feel very queer there are indeed. I catched 
myself a singing " Sweet Home" one night, among those savages in the wilderness. One wants 
consolation, John, sometimes one does, indeed ; and, for my part, I do miss the family prayers 
and the home-brewed.' 

No author has ever done better in portraying the characteristic feeling 
of the servants' hall; and at the other social extreme, Mr. Disraeli has had 
more practice than any other novelist. He has put more dukes, duchesses, 
lords, and ladies, more gold and jewels, more splendour and wealth into his 
books than anybody else has attempted to do. They are full of them. 
They are full, too, of his peculiar opinions about the race from which he 
has sprung. ' Race,' he tells us, ' is the only truth.' ' The Jews are the 
aristocracy of nature the purest race, the chosen people.' 

Whatever fate his fame as a statesman and a novelist may meet with at 
the hands of the future, there is, then, one thing at least he can never lose 
his connection with the aristocracy of nature. 


FOR fifteen years Mr. Hollingshead has been an active literary and public 
man. His literary career was begun much later than that of several of his 
contemporaries, but by his industry and ability he speedily succeeded in 
placing himself in the van. And in that particular walk of life to which 
he has devoted his energies, he may be placed in the first rank. 

John Hollingshead was born in London in September 1829. He is the 
son of Mr. Henry Randall Hollingshead ; and being intended by his father 
for a City life, he was educated with this end in view at Homerton. His 
family have been connected for many generations with City and business 
circles, and at an early age Mr. Hollingshead was placed with a London 
firm. But his literary tastes were so strong that he decided to embark on 
what is to ninety-nine aspirants out of a hundred the frailest bark that 
ever was launched literary pursuits. 

Having left his desk and the Gillott of commerce, he took up the quill 
of the man of letters ; and when only twenty-six years of age, he had made 
such headway that his performances strongly recommended him to the 
late Charles Dickens, who engaged him permanently for the staff of ' House- 
hold Words.' Mr. Hollingshead was also a contributor to many leading- 
papers, magazines, and reviews, among which we may mention the 
' Daily News,' ' London Review,' ' Punch,' ' Athenasum,' ' Times of India/ 
' Cornhill Magazine,' ' All the Year Round,' and to the columns of ' Once 
a Week.' Mr. Hollingshead was we suppose is a philosophical Radical, 
and in all the publications he wrote for he religiously preserved his political 
consistency. He was the devoted disciple of J. Bentham when that worthy 
was neglected. He can now see Jeremy's image every time he walks on 
the pavement in front of the fagade of Burlington House. Many of Mr. 
Hollingshead's most successful papers were written with the intention of 
making popular the principles of Mill and Bentham ; and it appears that 

SO HE PLAYS HIS PART. As You like it, act ii. sc. 7. 

JoJui Hollingshead. 47 

though the great humorist had little sympathy with the school himself, he 
let his collaborates say what he liked on the subject in ' All the Year Hound.' 

In 1859 some of his most popular papers were first collected and pub- 
lished in separate form, with the title of Under Bow Bells.' This volume 
contained the well-known essay called ' The City of Unlimited Paper,' which 
had attracted a great deal of attention in the monetary panic of 1857. 

' Rubbing the Gilt off,' which appeared in 1860, was a collection of 
clever political essays, written in a very lively style very readable, even to 
people who do not care about politics and dedicated to John Bright, at a 
time when the ex-Cabinet Minister had apparently about as much chance 
of being made Archimandrite as President of the Board of Trade. 

This book was followed by a collection of travels entitled ' Odd 
Journeys,' and by a volume of humorous papers entitled 'Ways of 
Life.' In the same year (1861) ' Ragged London' appeared. This was 
the reproduction of a series of letters which were published originally in 
the ' Morning Post.' The author's other publications are a collection of 
humorous stories entitled ' Rough Diamonds,' and two volumes of miscel- 
laneous essays called ' To-day.' 

Mr. Hollingshead is likewise a successful dramatist; and when the 
Exhibition of 1862 was projected he was called upon by the Commissioners 
to write the historical introduction to the official catalogues work done 
in 1851 by Mr. Cole, C.B. 

In 1866, in connection with Mr. Dion Boucicault, he had carried through 
an agitation which resulted in dramatic free trade; and the attention of 
capitalists having been drawn to the want of first-class theatres in London, 
several have been built since that date. The Gaiety Theatre, in the Strand, 
is the best and most successful of the new theatres. Mr. Hollingshead 
opened it in December 1868, and is still lessee and manager of this, one of 
the most popular of our London playhouses.. He has so played his part as 
manager as to please every taste, and has always secured the services of a 
first-rate company. His new dramas have been written by Robertson, 
Charles Reade, Gilbert, Oxenford, Byron, and Boucicault; and his company 
has included the names of Toole, Wigan, Boucicault, Charles Mathews, 
Mrs. Boucicault, Miss Neilson, and Miss Farren. 


MR. SWINBURNE, who was born at Holmwood in Surrey in 1843, received 
his education at Eton and Oxford. He left the University without taking 
a degree, and in 1861 published his first poems ' The Queen Mother,' 
and ' Rosamond.' 

These first efforts were not received with much favour either by the 
critics or by the general public; but, four years afterwards, the publication 
of ' Atalanta in Calydon' at once placed the young and ardent poet in the 
first rank among our living bards. 

He was enabled to dispute the laurels with Browning and Tennyson. 
The feeling and inspiration of the ' Atalanta' are thoroughly Greek, and 
it is written in rich yet simple English, artfully elaborated into most liquid 

There is no poet whose verses are more beautifully liquid and flowing 
than Mr. Swinburne's, and this quality is quite distinctive of him. His 
power of rhyming is wonderful. ' Sestina,' the poem published in the early 
part of 1872, bears witness to this, as there are only two rhymes all 
through it. 

Subsequently to the publication of 'Atalanta in Calydon,' Mr. Swin- 
burne produced (in 1865) ' Poems and Ballads.' However beautiful many 
of the poems in this volume were, their charm was destroyed by others 
which were neither wholesome nor good. 

Of late, Mr. Swinburne has turned over a new leaf, and all his recently 
published verses are as unobjectionable in matter as they are poetic in 
inspiration and finished in execution. Whatever else may be urged against 
Mr. Swinburne's writings, it can never be denied that they are the produc- 
tions of a true poet. 



JOHN CHIPPENDALE MONTESQUIEU BELLEW is the only son of the late Captain 
Robert Higgin, of Lancaster. He was born in 1823. His mother was a 
member of the family of Lord Bellew, in Ireland; and he has assumed his 
mother's maiden name. He was educated at the Grammar School, Lan- 
caster, and entered at St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1842. Here he became 
a regular speaker at the Union Debating Society, and in 1848 he was or- 
dained a curate at St. Andrew's, Worcester. In 1850, he became curate 
at Prescot, whence he went out to the East Indies as a chaplain in the fol- 
lowing year. He was attached to St. John's Cathedral, Calcutta, from that 
date till 1855, when he returned to England, and undertook a temporary 
engagement at St. Philip's, Regent-street. Here he gained great celebrity 
for his powers of oratory ; and, after having held some temporary clerical 
appointments, he became in 1862 incumbent of Bedford Chapel, Blooms- 

Mr. Bellew is the author of a novel entitled ' Blount Tempest,' ' The 
History of Holland House,' and other works. 

Some four years since, Mr. Bellew retired from the incumbency of Bed- 
ford Chapel, and embraced the Catholic faith. 

As a skilful elocutionist and successful reader, Mr. Bellew is in all pro- 
bability without a rival; and he excels alike in humorous and pathetic 
pieces, as all who have had the pleasure of listening to him in two such 
entirely opposite pieces as ' Horatius' and 'The Charity Dinner' can testify. 
It may be questioned if any single reader has ever succeeded in gathering 
together such large and appreciative audiences as Mr. Bellew; and his 
popularity, instead of being on the wane, appears to increase daily. Per- 
sonally, Mr. Bellew is a handsome man, with a commanding presence- 
natural gifts which he turns to the greatest advantage on the platform. 



J. C. M. Bellew. 51 

Doubtless, he owes no inconsiderable portion of his success to his hair, 
which he wears in a most melodramatic fashion. 

He has distanced all his competitors in his own line which is that of 
o-iving theatrical renderings of the best writers to a very worthy class of 
people, who would never think of entering the doors of a playhouse. 

His best humorous readings ' Love in a Balloon' and ' The Charity 
Dinner' are published in ' Once a Week.' Years ago, Mr. Bellew proved 
himself to be a master of one of the three Rs reading. His reputation has 
been fairly earned. 


' THE BELLS' was produced by Mr. Bateman on the 25th of November 
1871, and the critics were unanimous in their praise of the acting of the 
principal character of the piece. Indeed, the play is essentially a one-part 
piece as completely so as ' Leah' is. It is founded on the story of ' The 
Polish Jew,' by those great novelists, MM. Erckmann-Chatrian the twin 
brothers of modern French romance. 

The play is adapted by Mr. Leopold Lewis, who seems to have per- 
formed the task of taking other men's ideas as well as adapters generally. 
His version of ' The Polish Jew' opens as ' The Corsican Brothers' does 
with a narrative of the motive incident of the plot. 

Mathias keeps an inn in Alsace. In the common room of this inn, 
Walter and Hans are talking of the murder of the Polish Jew, which hap- 
pened fifteen years before ; when Mathias, the rich innkeeper, returns from 
a visit to Paris. Mathias was the murderer. He is astonished and alarmed 
to find the crime still a topic of conversation. When he killed the Jew for 
the gold he carried in his belt, he was poor and embarrassed. Now he is 
wealthy and prosperous, and the chief man in the village. His daughter is 
to be married to Christian, and he can give her a dowry of thirty thousand 

In Paris he has seen a mesmerist put people into the mesmeric sleep, 
and make them disclose their thoughts. This has made a deep impression 
on his mind. He sups ; drinks with Hans and Walter ; and after they are 
gone, is alone with his disordered fancy. The sledge bells ring again in his 
ears ; again he sees the face of the murdered Jew ; the soughing wind blows 
back on him the Jew's blessing, ' God be with you !' Still the sledge bells 
ring, and Mathias sees his victim driving in the snow. With a wild and 
terrible cry, he faints and falls. 

In the second act he is hurrying on the signing of the marriage contract. 


Henry Irving. 53 

But as he writes his name to the parchment, the bells ring in his ears, each 
chime a fiendish voice to rack his soul. 

The deed is signed, and witnessed by half the village. They dance a 
dance of joy. Mathias, leaping up, joins in it, and shouts and sings with a 
mad glee. 

In the third act the guests depart, and Mathias resolves to sleep alone ; 
for he talks in his sleep. He locks the door of his chamber, and retires to 
his bed to dream ; and, in his dream, to live again through all his night of 
crime. But with a new horror. A prisoner at the bar, he fancies the mes- 
merist makes him sleep, and tell his judges, with his own lips, the secret 
story of his guilt. 

Day comes. His wife and Christian break open the door of his chamber. 
They lift Mathias from his bed of horrors, in a dying state. He breathes 
his last in their arms. 

Such is the plot of ' The Bells.' 

Of Mr. Irving's character of Mathias, it is impossible to speak too highly. 
It is the finest impersonation seen on the English stage for years. It is a 
work of the highest art. The actor is lost in his creation. You see only 
Mathias, the terror-stricken murderer. The acting in the dream scene can 
only be charged witli one fault. It is too real, too terrible. And at the 
end, the presentment of death is perfect. 

Mr. Irving appeared first on the London stage, nearly six years ago, in 
a play called ' The Belles' Stratagem,' at the Theatre Royal, St. James's. 


MR. CHARLES EEADE is the youngest son of the late John Reade, Esquire, 
of Ipsden House, Oxfordshire. Mr. Reade is an Oxford man (he took his 
B.A. degree in 1835), and is a Doctor of Civil Law, and a fellow of Mag- 
dalen College in that university. He was called to the bar by the Honour- 
able Society of Lincoln's Inn in 1843. 

Charles Reade' s earliest stories were followed in 1856 by that powerful 
work of his genius, ' It is Never too Late to Mend.' The book created a 
great sensation : was read by everybody : and effected its author's purpose- 
viz, compelled the public to insist that the Model Prisons' system should be 
looked searchingly into. 

From the publication of ' Peg Woffington,' Charles Reade has continued 
to apply his great talents to the work of writing novels and dramas : with 
what success, every reader of fiction knows. 

The annexed complete list of his writings will give a correct idea of the 
extent of his productions in the difficult field of the Literature of Imagina- 
tion, in which he has chosen to exercise his genius. 

Stories in order of production. 


Peg Woffington . 1 Eighth Commandment ... 1 

Christie Johnstone . . . 1 The Cloister and the Heartli . . 4 

Clouds and Sunshine \ Hard Cash 3 

Propria quse Maribus I . I Griffith Gaunt 3 

Art ) Foul Playf 3 

It is Never too Late to Mend . . 3 Put Yourself in his Place ... 3 

Love me Little, Love me Long . -2 A Terrible Temptation ... 3 

Autobiography of a Thief ^ ^ A Simpleton. 

Jack of all Trades . ] ' Graphic Christmas Supplement. 

White Lies 3 

* Under title of ' Cream.' -j- With Di on Bouoicault. 


Charles Reade. 55 

Dramas in order of production. 

The Ladies' Battle Translation. 

The Village Tale . Three-act drama. 

The Lost Husband Four-act drama. 

Masks and Faces* Two-act comedy. 

Gold ......... Drama, five acts. 

Two Loves and a Life* Drama, four acts. 

The King's Rival* Comedy, five acts. 

The First Printer* Drama, three acts. 

The Courier of Lyons Drama, three acts. 

Honour before Titles Drama, three acts. 

It is Never too Late to Mend Drama, five acts. 

Griffith Gaunt Drama, five acts. 

Foul Play Drama, five acts. 

Dora ......... Pastoral drama, three acts. 

The Double Marriage Drama, five acts. 

Put Yourself in his Place Drama, five acts. 

The Robust Invalid Comedy, three acts. 

Shilly Shallyf Comedy, three acts. 

This list shows that Charles Reade is the author, or joint-author in 
four plays and one novel of nineteen different stories, ranging in length from 
one-third of a volume to four volumes : and of eighteen dramatic works. 

Now it certainly argues some want of real knowledge or study in the 
critics of the day, that they cannot assign his place, whatever that may 
be, to this writer. They can place inferior authors, but they really and 
honestly have no notion where this man stands, either as a novelist, or 
dramatist, or both. Perhaps it may tend to clear this absolute fog 
enveloping the judgment of the critics, if we descend from the indefinite 
to the definite, and compare him with a writer of acknowledged excel- 
lence. We are so fortunate as to possess in this country a novelist who, 
if contemporary criticism were to be trusted, is the greatest writer of fiction 
the world ever saw. With regard to Shakspeare, contemporary criticism 
has left but two remarks in print, both of them unfavourable. Corneille 
was so often lashed, and so little praised, that he has left a line behind him 
to celebrate the fact : 

' J'ai peu des voix pour moi, mais je les ai sans brigue.' 
* With Tom Taylor. f Founded on Trollope's novel. 

Charles Reade. 

Moliere was denounced as a plagiarist ; Yoltaire was well lashed ; Scott 
did not quite escape ; Bulwer has been severely criticised ; even Dickens 
was always roughly handled in certain respectable prints. 

But George Eliot is faultless. This is the sober and often repeated 
verdict of every quarterly, monthly, and daily critic in the empire, except 
of one writer, who tried to stem the torrent of adulation in the ' Quarterly 
Review,' and failed because, being no critic, he selected certain of that 
excellent writer's beauties, and held them up for faults. 

Now perhaps some people will open their eyes if we tell them that 
this prodigious writer often borrows ideas from Charles Reade, and some- 
times improves them, sometimes bungles them. But, as in matters of art 
it is sometimes kind to open people's eyes, we shall assure you that this 
is so ; and moreover that in a single instance the two writers have come 
into competition on fair terms, and the comparison is so unfavourable to 
the favourite, that the said comparison, though obvious, has always been 
dexterously avoided. 

In ' It is Never too Late to Mend,' published in 1856, one of the situa- 
tions is as follows : Good Mr. Eden, having to deal with a hardened thief, 
goes down on his knees in that thief's cell, and prays aloud for him ; and 
softens him a little. In ' Adam Bede,' good Dinah goes on her knees in 
the cell of Hetty, an impenitent criminal; and softens her a little. 

Reade uses few words, after his kind; and Eliot uses many words, after . 
her kind. But amplification is not invention : the inventor and the only 
inventor of that famous scene in ' Adam Bede' is Charles Reade. 

Mr. Eden preaches a sermon in the gaol. The author shuns the beaten 
track, and gives the very words of the sermon. 

George Eliot profits by this, and gives her Dinah the very words of a 
sermon. And in one respect she goes beyond her original : for her sermon 
is fuller, and has a distinct merit, being composed with great heart and 
beauty of homely English, often Saxon, and nearly always monosyllabic. 
But she falls behind in one thing she makes Dinah preach her sermon to 
strangers; and that shows a want of constructive art. 

Charles Reade has since returned to his own invention, and has made his 
Rhoda Somerset preach a remarkable sermon, at which those personages 

Charles Reade. 


are present whom that sermon hits. This is art. A sermon, preached to 
the reader only, is a mere excrescence on the narrative. It is a wart, though 
it may not be a blot. 

The only situation of any power in 'The Mill on the Floss' viz. the 
heroine and her lover drifting loose in a boat, and being out together all 
night is manifestly taken from the similar situation in ' Love me Little, 
Love me Long.' But Eliot's treatment of the borrowed incident is petty 
and womanish by comparison with her model. 

In ' Felix Holt,' the ground is admirably laid for strong situations : but 
in the actual treatment only two come out dramatically, and they are both 
borrowed. The young gentleman going to strike his steward, and being 
met by ' I am your Father;' and the heroine going into the witness-box 
to give evidence for her lover. The former is borrowed from an old novel, 
and the latter from Charles Reade's ' Hard Cash;' and it may be instructive 
to show how the inventor and the imitator deal with the idea. 

We print in parallel columns quotations of the evidence given in court 
by both novelists' heroines. 


(Vol. iii. p. 294, 1863.) 


(Vol. iii. p. 228, 1866.) 

Julia Dodd entered the box, and a sunbeam seemed to fill 
the court. She knew what to do : her left hand was gloved, 
but her white right hand bare. She kissed the book; and gave 
her evidence in her clear, mellow, melting voice : gave it rever- 
ently and modestly, for to her the court was a church. She 
said how long she had been acquainted with Alfred, and how his 
father was adverse, and her mother had thought it was because 
they did not pass for rich, and had told her they were rich ; and 
with this she produced David's letter, and she also swore to 
having met Alfred and others carrying her father in a swoon 
from his father's very door. She deposed to Alfred's sanity on 
her wedding-eve, and on the day his recapture was attempted. 

Saunders, against his own judgment, was instructed to cross- 
examine her ; and, without meaning it, he put a question which 
gave her deep distress. 

There was no blush upon her 
face : she stood, divested of all 
personal considerations, whe- 
ther of vanity or shyness. Her 
clear voice sounded as it might 
have done if she had been mak- 
ingaconfession of faith. She be- 
gan and went on without query 
or interruption. Every face 
looked grave and respectful. 

' I am Esther Lyon, the 
daughter of Mr. Lyon, the In- 
dependent minister at Trebv, 
who has been one of the wit- 
nesses for the prisoner. I knew 

Charles Reade. 

'Are you now engaged to the plaintiff?' 

She looked timidly round, and saw Alfred, and hesitated. 
The serjeant pressed her politely, but firmly. 

' Must I reply to that ?' she said piteously. 

'If you please.' 

'Then, no. Another misfortune has now separated him and 
me for ever.' 

' What is that, pray f 

'My father is said to have died at sea; and my mother 
thinks lie is to blame.' 

The Judge to Saunders. What on earth has this to do with 
Hardie against Hardie ? 

Saunders. You are warmly interested in the plaintiff's suc- 

Julia. O yes, sir. 

(Colt, aside to Garrow. The fool is putting his foot into it : 
there's not a jury in England that would give a verdict to part 
two interesting young lovers.) 

Saunders. You are attached to him ? 

Julia. Ah, that I do ! 

This burst, intended for poor Alfred, not the court, baffled 
cross-examination and grammar and everything else. Saunders 
was wise and generous, and said no more. 

Colt cast a glance of triumph, and declined to reesamine. 
He always let well alone. The Judge, however, evinced a de- 
sire to trace the fourteen thousand pounds from Calcutta ; but 
Julia could not help him : that mysterious sum had been an- 
nounced by letter as about to sail ; and then no more was heard 
about it till Alfred accused his father of having it. All endea- 
vours to fill this hiatus failed. However Julia, observing that 
in courts material objects affect the mind most, had provided 
herself with all the pieces de conviction she could find, and she 
produced her father's empty pocket-book, and said, when he was 
brought home senseless, this was in his breast-pocket. 

' Hand it up to me,' said the Judge. He examined it, and 
said it had been in the water. 

' Captain Dodd was wrecked off the French coast,' suggested 
Mr. Saunders. 

' My learned friend had better go into the witness-box, if he 
means to give evidence,' said Mr. Colt. 

' You are very much afraid of a very little truth,' retorted 

Felix Holt well. On the day 
of the election at Treby, when 
I had been much alarmed by 
the noises that reached me from 
the main street, Felix Holt 
came to call upon me. He 
knew that my father was away, 
and he thought that I should 
be alarmed by the sounds of 
disturbance. It was about the 
middle of the day, and he came 
to tell me that the disturbance 
was quieted, and that the streets 
were nearly emptied. But he 
said he feared that the men 
would collect again after drink- 
ing, and that something worse 
might happen later in the day. 
And he was in much sadness 
at this thought. He stayed a 
little while, and then he left 
me. He was very melancholy. 
His mind was full of great re- 
solutions, that came from his 
kind feeling towards others. It 
was the last thing he would 
have done to join in riot or to 
hurt any man, if he could have 
helped it. His nature is very 
noble : he is tender-hearted ; 
he could never have had any 
intention that was not brave 
and good.' 

There was something so naive 
and beautiful in this action 
of Esther's, that it conquered 
every low or petty suggestion 
even in the commonest minds. 

Charles Reade. 59 

The Judge stopped this sham rancontre, by asking the witness whether her father had been 
wrecked. She said, ' Yes.' 

' And that is how the money was lost,' persisted Saunders. 

' Possibly,' said the Judge. 

' I'm darned if it was,' said Joshua Fullalove composedly. 

Instantly, all heads were turned in amazement at this audacious interruption to the soporific 
decorum of an English court. The transatlantic citizen received this battery of eyes with com- 
plete imperturbability. 

Fertile situations are the true cream of fiction ; these once supplied, 
any professional writer can find words. 

Now, the fertile situation in ' Felix Holt' was supplied by Charles Keade. 
The true literary patent is in him. His is the witness with the clear mellow 
voice who gives her evidence as if before God and that witness a young 
lady who loves the man for whom she gives evidence, he being present. 
To be sure, George Eliot's witness shows a disposition to argue the case ; 
but that is no improvement on the original. 

We will now call attention to another instance of George Eliot's imita- 
tion of Charles Reade. 

In his little story, ' Clouds and Sunshine,' Charles Reade uses this ex- 
pression ' the thunder of the horses' feet drawing the wagon into the barn.' 

His unlucky imitator pounces on his ' thunder' and his ' wagon' and 
deals with them thus : ' The thunder of the wagon coming up the hill.' 
Now the iron shoes of a team going over the wooden floor of a barn do 
come the nearest to thunder of anything we ever heard ; but a wagon 
coming up a hill does not thunder ; the most prominent sound is the creak- 
ing of the slow wheels. This, then, is unintelligent imitation on a smaller 

In 1860 Mr. Reade produced a mediseval novel with an idea-ed title, 
' The Cloister and the Hearth.' 

His faithful imitator soon followed suit with a medieval novel, whose 
title was unidea-ed ' Romola.' 

Here the two writers met on an arena that tests the highest quality 
they both pretend to Imagination. 

What is the result ? In ' The Cloister and the Hearth' you have the 
middle ages, long and broad. The story begins in Holland, and the quaint 

60 Charles Reade. 

Dutch figures live ; it goes through Germany, and Germany lives ; it picks 
up a French arbaletrier, and the medieval French soldier is alive again. 
It goes to Home, and the Roman men and women live again. 

Compare with this the narrow canvas of ' Romola,' and the faint colours. 
The petty politics of mediseval Florence made to sit up in the grave, but 
not to come out of it. The gossip of modern Florence turned on to medi- 
eval subjects and called mediaeval gossip. Romola herself is a high-minded, 
delicate-minded, sober-minded lady of the nineteenth century, and no other. 
She has a gentle but tame and non-mediseval affection for a soft egotist 
who belongs to that or any age you like. One great historical figure, 
Savonarola, is taken, and turned into a woman by a female writer : sure 
sign imagination is wanting. There is a dearth of powerful incidents, 
though the time was full of them, as ' The Cloister and the Hearth' is full 
, of them. There you have the broad features of that marvellous age, so full 
of grand anomalies : the fine arts and the spirit that fed them ; the feasts, 
the shows, the domestic life, the laws, the customs, the religion; the roads 
and their perils ; the wild beasts disputing the civilised continent with man, 
man uppermost by day, the beasts by night ; the hostelries, the robbers, 
the strange vows ; the convents, shipwrecks, sieges, combats, escapes; a 
robbers' slaughter-house burnt, and the fire lighting up trees clad with 
snow. And through all this a deep current of true love passionate, yet 
pure ending in a medieval poem: the battle of ascetic religion against 
our duty to our neighbour, which was the great battle of the time that 
shook religious souls. But perhaps we shall be told this comparison is 
beside the mark ; that a dearth of incidents is better than a surfeit, and 
that it is in the higher art of drawing characters George Eliot stands su- 
preme, and Charles Reade fills an insignificant place. We will abide by 
that test in this comparison. 

What genuine mediasval characters, to be compared with those of 
Walter Scott, for instance, live in the memory after reading the two works 
we are comparing ? 

' The Cloister and the Hearth' is a gallery of such portraits, painted in 
full colours to the life. ' Romola' is a portfolio of delicate studies. 'Romola' 
leaves on the memory : 1, a young lady of the nineteenth century, the exact 

Charles Reade. 6 1 

opposite of a mediaeval woman ; 2, the soft egotist, an excellent type ; 

3, an innocent little girl; 4, Savonarola emasculated. The other characters 
talk nineteen to the dozen, but they are little more than voluble shadows. 

' The Cloister and the Hearth' fixes on the mind : 1, the true lover, 
hermit and priest, Gerard; 2, the true lover, medieval and northern, Mar- 
garet of Sevenbergen; 3, Dame Catherine, economist, gossip, and mother; 

4, the dwarf with his big voice; 5, the angelic cripple, little Kate; 6, the 
Burgomaster; 7, the Burgundian soldier, a character hewn out of mediasval 
rock; 8, the gaunt Dominican, hard, but holy; 9, the patrician monk, in 
love with heathenism, but safe from fiery fagots because he believed in the 
Pope; 10, the patrician Pope, in love with Plutarch, and sated with con- 
troversy; 11, the Princess Clselia, a true medieval; 12, the bravo's wife, a 
link between ancient and mediaeval Rome. 

Philip of Burgundy does but cross the scene; yet he leaves his mark. 
Margaret Van Eyck is but flung upon the broad canvas; yet that single 
figure so drawn has suggested three volumes to another writer. 

You can find a thousand Romolas in London, because she is drawn from 
observation, and is quite out of place in a medieval tale. But you cannot 
find the characters of ' The Cloister and the Hearth,' because they are 

When ' The Cloister and the Hearth' was first published, the ' Saturday 
Review,' staggered by the contents of the book, yet bound by the sacred tie 
of habit to say something against it, summed it up as inferior on the whole 
to Walter Scott. But nobody has ever compared ' Romola' to Walter Scott. 
Adulation, however fulsome, has evaded this comparison, because it would 
have provoked derision; and no reviewer, until this article was written, ever 
.had the courage to compare ' Romola' with ' The Cloister and the Hearth.' 
Yet any one who has not made that comparison honestly and fairly knows 
little of Charles Reade, and cannot possibly assign him his true place 
amongst living writers of fiction. 

Of ' The Cloister and the Hearth' it is impossible to speak too well. 
The author's perfect knowledge of mediaeval life, just before the time of 
Erasmus, is wonderful. The plot is full of incident of the newest and most 
striking, yet most probable and natural sort : the characters live, and seem 

62 Charles Reade. 

to us real persons we know well : the France, Italy, Holland, and Germany 
of the time of Erasmus are faithfully reproduced. The interest never flags : 
there is always something to command attention and excite curiosity. ' The 
Cloister and the Hearth' is one of the most scholarlike and* learned, as well 
as one of the most artistic and beautiful, Avorks of fiction in any language. 
This splendid production can only be compared with the best books of one 
author Walter Scott. And in all things it is as good as ' Kenilworth' 
and ' Ivanhoe :' in some points it is better. Although we place two of 
Charles Reade's books first in their respective classes ' Foul Play' in the 
class of novels called sensational, and ' The Cloister and the Hearth' in that 
of the purely imaginative yet his books, taken throughout, are of more 
even merit than those of almost any other novelist. They are written in 
English as pure, as simple, and as truly Saxon as any this century has pro- 
duced : in a literary style nervous, vigorous, and masculine with which 
the most captious and partisan critic cannot find any fault. 

Read him : resign yourself to the magic spell of his genius, and be lifted 
above the cares of everyday life into the regions of imagination, peopled by 
his real creations. You may be trusted then to draw your own conclusions 
as to the merit of his books. 

By the million readers of the time to come, Bulwer, Dickens, Thackeray, 
and Reade will be handed down to fame together in every English-speaking 

To the scholar and the man of culture, ' The Cloister and the Hearth' 
may possibly be dearer than the humorous and wonderful creations of 
Dickens's fertile genius, or the life-like characters and satirical digressions 
of Thackeray. 


TOM HOOD, the well-known editor of the comic journal, ' Fun,' son of the 
late celebrated poet and author, born at Lake House, Wanstead, Essex, 
January 19, 1835, was educated at University College School and Louth 
Grammar School, Lincolnshire ; entered (intended for the Church) as 
a commoner at Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1853, where he passed all 
the examinations for the degree, but did not put on the gown, of B.A. 
His first work, ' Pen and Pencil Pictures,' written at Oxford, was published 
in 1854, 5. It was followed by ' Quips and Cranks,' and ' Daughters of King 
Daher, and other Poems,' in 1861 ; ' Loves of Tom Tucker and Little 
Bo-Peep, a Rhyming Rigmarole,' in 1862 ; ' Yere Vereker's Vengeance, a 
Sensation,' in 1864 ; ' Captain Master's Children, a Novel,' and ' Jingles and 
Jokes for the Little Folks,' in 1865. Novels : ' A Disputed Inheritance,' 
' Golden Heart,' ' A Lost Link,' and ' Love and Valour.' He has written 
several books for juveniles, and illustrated his father's comic verses, ' Pre- 
cocious Piggy,' having on other occasions wielded pencil as well as pen ; 
and was appointed editor of ' Fun,' which had passed into the hands of a 
new proprietor, in May 1865. Tom Hood is a contributor to many maga- 
zines and periodicals, and has had some experience as a journalist. He is 
also author of two books on English verse composition. In 1868 he again 
started the ' Comic Annual,' which has achieved a decided success. 

The popularity of ' Fun' under Mr. Hood's care speaks volumes for his 
skill and judgment as an editor ; and he has a recognised position as an 
author, standing high in public favour. 



THIS veteran actor had earned a great reputation many years ago. His 
name will go down to future generations of playgoers as that of one who 
was a master of the art of embodying on the stage every variety of char- 
acter. No man has played with success in a greater number of characters 
than the proprietor of the Adelphi. 

Benjamin Webster is descended from a good Yorkshire family, though 

the city of Bath was his birthplace. He made his first appearance on the 

stage of life on the 3d of September 1800. He was educated for the navy, 

and a commission was procured for him by the late Duchess of York ; but 

he never entered the service. The navy has been the loser and the stage 

the gainer by the circumstance. He was fond of music, and made that his 

first profession. While fulfilling an engagement in the orchestra of the 

theatre at Warwick, he first threw down the fiddlestick, and put on the 

mask and tights of a harlequin a character different from those with which 

in after years he pleased the public. But his real debut as an actor took place 

in the same theatre, in the character of Thessalus in ' Alexander the Great.' 

He succeeded, and resolved to devote himself for the future to the stage. 

His career after this was that of most young actors. He travelled from 

town to town, playing all sorts of parts at all sorts of theatres a training 

which proved most beneficial. After various adventures in England and 

Ireland, he turned up in London, where he played trifling parts at several 

houses. At length, in 1825, ' Measure for Measure' was being performed at 

Drury Lane, with a strong cast, and Harley had the part of Pompey the 

clown. The popular comedian was suddenly taken ill. At three or four 

hours' notice, Benjamin Webster took his place, delighted the audience, 

pleased the manager, and filled the press with his praises. From this time 

his name was made. He had plenty of good offers; and in 1829 he opened 

at the Haymarket, in ' Lodgings for Single Gentlemen.' When Morris, the 





Benjamin Webster. 67 

lessee, retired, Mr. Webster took his place, and for sixteen years was lessee 
of that house. At the end of that time Mr. Buckstone took it, and Mr. Web- 
ster devoted himself exclusively to the Adelphi. 

In 1858 he rebuilt that theatre, an old and inconvenient house, and 
raised in its stead one of the most complete and well-constructed houses in 
London. The Haymarket owes its position to his energy and liberality. 
He spent 2000/. a-year on English authors at a time when, as now, there 
was a cry that everything worth seeing was cribbed from the French. 
Knowles, Bulwer, and Jerrold supplied him with plays; and Macready, 
Phelps, Wallack, Warde, Farren, Reeve, Buckstone, Charles Mathews, 
Power, Helen Faucit, Mrs. Glover, Mrs. Warner, and Mrs. Stirling, illus- 
trated them. Not least in this list of ' all the talents' was Benjamin Web- 
ster himself. It has been said of him, that ' his motley assumptions remind 
us of a crowd of Hogarth's. In looking back over all the years of his career, 
the mass is overpowering. Though each face is individual old age and 
youth, fops and vulgarians, Cockneys and countrymen, misers and gamblers, 
blacklegs and priests ; Welshmen, Scotchmen, and Dutchmen ; negroes, 
Jesuits, and Jews their habiliments would form the wardrobe of a theatre.' 
Perhaps his greatest impersonation, out of all the characters he assumed, 
was that of Robert Landry, in the ' Dead Heart.' This was a wonderful 
delineation of character; and the scene in which Robert recovers his 
memory, after many years' incarceration in the Bastille, is as fine a piece 
of acting as ever was seen on the English stage. Old playgoers, too, will 
recall with delight his George Darville, his Richard Pride, and his Tartuffe. 
In all his characters, he entered heart and soul into the author's meaning, 
and the spectator was lost in the reality of the scene. 

One other feature of Mr. Webster's career deserves notice ; it is his con- 
nection with the Royal Dramatic College. This valuable institution he 
has from the first assisted with his purse and his labour, and has always 
done all he could to help it on to its present usefulness to decayed mem- 
bers of the profession. 

Mr. Webster's very long connection with the stage has caused him to 
be looked upon as a sort of Nestor among actors ; his friends, private and 
professional, looking up to him as ' the Governor.' 


THE name of Trollope was as familiar to the last generation of readers as 
it is to the present. Mrs. Fanny Trollope she married in 1809 Anthony 
Trollope, barrister-at-law having lost her husband, applied herself to liter- 
ature. In 1832, the year of the Reform Bill in England, she published her 
first book. It was about the United States, where she had lived for some 
time, and was called ' Domestic Life of the Americans.' 

In England, it was read and enjoyed. In the States, the people did not 
like it-^they did not appear to advantage in the book; but it made the 
reputation of the lady who had written it; and Mrs. Fanny Trollope con- 
tinued to apply herself to the manufacture of interesting and clever books, 
her chef-d'cBuvre being ' The Widow Barnaby.' The authoress died at 
Florence in 1863; and in the outskirts of that city her eldest son, Thomas 
Adolphus Trollope, has made his home. 

Her second son, the subject of this notice, has made England his home, 
and the English people his study. 

Anthony Trollope seems to have ' thrown back' one generation. His 
grandfather was a parson; and it is in delineating the phases of clerical life, 
from the bishop to the curate, that this popular writer excels. Bishop 
Proudie, Archdeacon Grantley, the Rev. Obadiah Slope, Mr. Crawley of 
Hogglestock, are creations of his genius that have their originals in life. 
They are photographic portraits of men his readers know : nature clothed 
with the form of art : and from this exquisite truthfulness they derive their 

The conversations of the characters in his books are exactly the dia- 
logues one hears in everyday life. One man turns to Trollope for his re- 
creation, because ' it is exactly like life, you know.' Another man says : 
' When I pick up a novel, I want to be taken above everyday life. I want 
the ideal. I don't find this in Trollope.' And so he does not read Trollope's 


Anthony Trollope. 69 

books. These readers are types : the realist loving reality, which he finds; 
the idealist seeking for the noble, unselfish, poetic, which he does not find. 
Trollope's point of view is real and perfectly natural, but it is low. 

His parsons, whether they are bishops, prebendaries, deans, vicars, or 
curates, are, as a rule, the selfish men of everyday life. Their wives are 
more worldly and selfish than they. What, then, is the mission of the 
novelist to educate or to depict ? The numerous readers of the popular 
author must answer this. 

Literary fame is a thing of slow growth, generally. Anthony Trollope 
began with a story, historical and dull, entitled ' La Vendee,' published by 
Colburn in 1850. He had missed his mark, but he soon rectified the mis- 
take. In 1855 he published ' The Warden,' being the history of the Eev. 
Septimus Harding, warden of Hiram's Hospital, in the city of Barchester. 
Two years later, ' Barchester Towers' appeared; in 1858, ' Dr. Thorne,' 
another story of churchmen; and in the same year, 'The Three Clerks,' a 
story of legal and political life. In 1859, the prolific pen of the author 
furnished Mudie's subscribers with ' The Bertrams,' and an Irish story, ' The 
Kellys and the O'Kellys.' In the next year (1860), ' Castle Richmond' 
made its appearance; and then Thackeray invited Mr. Trollope to open the 
ball in ' The Cornhill' with a new story. This story, ' Framley Parsonage,' 
is one of his best productions. It is a charming piece of genre painting in 
ink, and did its part in maintaining his reputation, if it did not add anything 
to it. 'OrleyFarm' (1862), 'Rachel Ray' (1863), 'The Small House at 
Allington,' and 'Can you forgive her?' followed in 1864, almost together; 
' Miss Mackenzie' in '65, and ' The Belton Estate' in '66. In '67, ' The Last 
Chronicle of Barset,' and ' The Claverings;' in '69, ' He knew he was right,' 
and ' Phineas Finn.' ' The Vicar of Bulhampton,' ' Sir Harry Hotspur of 
Humblethwaite,' ' Ralph the Heir,' and ' The Golden Lion of Granpere,' 
close the list. 

What other novelist has written as many stories of even merit ? They 
are all below the high mark of the great writers; but all are interesting, all 
show good sound art in their manipulation. They represent a great total 
of work conscientiously performed. It seems well, in these fast times, to 
keep the ball rolling. Mrs. Henry Wood, Miss Braddon, and Anthony 

yo Anthony Troilope. 

Trollope have laid this truth to heart. They have all of them a public, and 
they always take care to provide amusement for their readers. Something 
of theirs is always ' going on somewhere.' 

This policy is sound. Fashions and tastes change, new writers may 
spring up, or old ones wear out. They charm while they may, while their 
'copy' has a market value, and act on that most excellent proverb of making 
their hay while the sun shines. It is well that they should do so; and no- 
body's hay, old or new, is sweeter in the mouth than that of the writer 
whose books we have named. He is an artist who goes to nature for his 
materials; whose puppets are flesh and blood, not clothes-horses; and 
against whom the only fault we have to bring is, that he has. perhaps, too 
much ' to parsons given up what was meant for mankind.' 

C. E. M U D I E. 

CHARLES EDWARD MUDIE, the subject of our cartoon, was born October 18, 
1818, at Cheyne-walk, Chelsea, where his father kept a small library, old- 
fashioned, but good of its kind, and well frequented by the literary dwellers 
in that then fashionable suburb. Some of our older readers may, perhaps, 
still remember the little lad attending at his father's counter, too young in 
the business to do more than fetch and carry, but already a diligent reader 
of all the books within his reach. 

The elder Mudie relinquished the Cheyne-walk library in 1828, and 
removed with his family to Coventry-street, where he commenced a sta- 
tionery business, still carried on by one of his sons. There young Charles 
Edward remained for a few years, spending most of his time in reading 
what works of philosophy and history he could manage to procure. In 
those days it was difficult to find a library from which it was possible, 
at a moderate cost, to obtain any books better worth reading than the 
ordinary novels of the period; and there was, therefore, nothing for it in 
his case but to buy the books he could not borrow. In this way he, in the 
course of time, accumulated a considerable collection of standard works. 

One morning, in the spring of 1840, the idea occurred to young Mudie 
that there were many readers who, like himself, experienced this difficulty 
in procuring the higher class of books, and who would gladly patronise an 
undertaking which would place the better literature within their reach. 
Acting upon this idea, he commenced business in Southampton-row then 
Upper King-street, Bloomsbury by placing the whole of his collection in 
a window, with a printed intimation of his purpose, under the now familiar 
title of ' Mudie' s Select Library.' The ' select' library soon attracted a 
select circle of readers, and as this circle enlarged the supply of books in- 
creased; until, in the course of a few years, the success of the enterprise 
was so well assured that the proprietor ventured to advance from tens to 


C. R. Mudie. 73 

hundreds, and finally to thousands, of copies of works of high repute and 
worth; of Livingstone's travels, for example, 3250 copies were taken on 
the day of publication. 

In 1852, the library was removed to New Oxford-street, and year by 
year, as the business grew, house after house was added. These, with the 
great hall in their rear one of the largest and best-proportioned rooms in 
London hardly suffice to contain the vast accumulation of books which 
has been provided for the instruction and amusement of the multitude. 

At the commencement of his enterprise, Mr. Mudie did not contemplate 
the circulation of works of fiction; but very soon afterwards it was quite 
clear to him that, as some of the best philosophy of the day came clothed 
in that attractive garb, it was not desirable to exclude them; and a 
considerable number of copies were taken of ' Margaret Maitland of Sunny- 
side,' ' Alton Locke,' ' Mary Barton,' ' Jane Eyre,' ' Vanity Fair,' and the 
earlier novels of the author of John Halifax;' and through the door, once 
open, a hundred other of the choicer novels found their way, and others 
followed the difficulty of drawing any line, save for obvious reasons, having 
been frankly admitted. 

It is almost a pity that the stricter rule and higher standard adopted in 
the first instance were not rigorously maintained throughout; but the prin- 
ciple of an index expurgatorius could never have commended itself to a 
man of Mr. Mudie's liberal views, and would never have been tolerated by 
the great multitude of his patrons. 

Whether the library has accomplished all that might have been hoped 
for by the more sanguine of its early patrons, and whether, while offering 
the means of intellectual improvement and innocent enjoyment to many- 
readers, it has not at the same time incidentally, and it may be injuriously, 
disturbed to some extent the old order of things, may be a matter of ques- 
tion; but as far as the founder is concerned, there can be no doubt that he 
has worked assiduously and effectually in the interests of literature. 

Mr. Mudie is one of the members for Westminster of the London School 
Board; a director of the London Missionary Society; a Fellow of the Koyal 
Geographical Society; and is, we believe, the author of a volume of poems 
called ' Stray Leaves,' of which some of the reviews speak in the highest terms. 



MR. LIONEL BROUGH, the popular low comedian, is the son of the late Mr. 
Barnabas Brough, once well known as a dramatic author, writing under 
the nom de plume of ' Barnard de Burgh.' 

Mr. Lionel Brough is a native of the Principality, having been born at 
Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, on March 10th, 1836. He is the brother 
of the late B,obert and William Brough, known to all playgoers as the 
' Brothers Brough,' and also of the late Mr. John C. Brough, author of 
works on scientific subjects, and the librarian to the London Institution. 

Mr. Lionel Brough has taken to the stage; for, like many leading actors, 
he was not bred to the profession, but began life as clerk to Mr. John 
Timbs, editor of the ' Illustrated London News.' at the time when Douglas 
Jerrold, Albert Smith, John Leech, Charles Dickens, and W. M. Thackeray 
were in their prime; he was afterwards assistant publisher of the ' Daily 
Telegraph' for the first seven months of its existence. 

He made his first appearance on the London stage at the Lyceum, 
under the celebrated management of Madame Vestris and Charles Ma- 
thews. The piece was an extravaganza entitled ' Prince Prettypet,' pro- 
duced in December 1854. Madame Vestris died, and Mr. Mathews retired 
from the management of the Lyceum. 

In 1858, Mr. Brough was again at the Lyceum under Mr. E. Falconer's 
management. He then deserted the stage, and was for five years on the 
' Morning Star.' He next gave entertainments ' Cinderella,' ' Der Frei- 
schutz,' &c. at the Polytechnic, afterwards travelling in the provinces with 
a 'Ghost' performance, which he produced 'by command' at Windsor. 
Mr. Brough played before the Queen and the late Prince Consort, with the 
members of the Savage Club, for the Lancashire Belief Fund, and also 
visited Liverpool and Manchester for the same object. 

He next joined Mr. Henderson at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, Liver- 


Lionel Brough. 75 

pool, afterwards becoming a member of Mr. Copeland's company at the 
Amphitheatre; and next was associated with Mr. Saker at the Alexandra 
Theatre there. 

Mr. Brough came to London in October 1867, and has played at the 
Queen's, St. James's, and Holborn theatres. In August 1872, Mr. Bouci- 
cault opened Covent Garden at the close of the Opera season with Mr. 
Brough as his stage manager. 

At Liverpool, Birmingham, Leeds, and the chief provincial towns, Mr. 
Brough has often performed, and is a great favourite with his audiences. 
He has all the requisite qualities as an actor for the parts he plays; and 
to his great natural humour and fun he adds a conscientious and careful 
study of the characters he undertakes. 

Tony Lumpkin, in ' She Stoops to Conquer,' he played for a long time, 
with the greatest success, at the St. James's Theatre; and he is the best 
Tony on the stage. Uncle Ben in ' Dearer than Life,' Spotty in ' The 
Lancashire Lass,' Sampson Burr in ' The Porter's Knot,' Mark Meddle in 
' London Assurance,' Robin Wildbriar in ' Extremes,' are among the best 
of Mr. Brough' s assumptions. He plays them with marked intelligence 
arid appreciation, and a display of genuine humorous power and versatility 
not too frequently met with on the stage. 

Mr. Brough likewise enjoys considerable celebrity as an actor of burlesque 
parts, when he never fails to put his audiences in a good temper with 
themselves and with their entertainer. 


THE subject of our cartoon, Mr. Wilkie Collins, is one of the most successful 
novel writers of the day. 

He is the eldest son of the late Mr. W. Collins, R.A., an artist of 
great ability in the delineation of rustic landscapes. Mr. Wilkie Collins was 
born in London in the year 1824, and received his education at a private 
school. He was associated with the late Charles Dickens in the celebrated 
amateur performances at Tavistock House. In 1859-60, his famous story 
of ' The Woman in White' appeared in ' All the Year Round.' 

Besides ' The Woman in White,' Mr. Collins is the author of the follow- 
ing works of fiction : ' The Queen of Hearts,' ' No Name,' ' The Moonstone,' 
'My Miscellanies,' 'Mr. Wray's Cash Box; or the Mask and the Mystery : 
a Christmas Sketch,' 'Man and Wife,' 'Poor Miss Finch', 'Miss or Mrs.,' 
' Hide and Seek,' ' The Dead Secret,' ' Basil : a Story of Modern Life,' ' Ar- 
madale,' ' Antonina; or the Fall of Rome,' ' After Dark;' and he was, jointly 
with Charles Dickens, the author of two of the Christmas stories published 
as supplementary numbers of ' All the Year Round.' 

He has written also a life of his father, Mr. W. Collins. R.A., published 
in 1848, entitled ' Memoirs of the Life of William Collins, with Selections 
from his Journal and Correspondence;' and a book of sketches called 
'Rambles beyond Railways; or Notes in Cornwall taken a-Foot.' 

As a writer of fiction, Mr. Collins is remarkable for the ingenuity of his 
plots, and for the air of mystery that he contrives to throw over common- 
place events. He in striking contrast to many writers of much greater 
eminence and merit devotes the utmost care to keeping his story ' close 
together.' Everything in his books has a bearing on the issue of the plot. 
Not a window is opened, a door shut, or a nose blown, but, depend upon it, 
the act will have something to do with the end of the book. Yet no book 
of Mr. Collins's can compare in this respect with Scott's ' Bride of Lammer- 


Wilkie Collins. 77 

moor/ where every chapter is necessary not one is redundant; where every 
line contributes to the final and splendidly effective climax. And in this 
quality alone can Mr. Collins's novels be compared, with advantage to their 
author, with the greater works of greater men. 

His plots are commonly intricate. Often it is too difficult for the reader 
to hold all the threads for it to be a pleasant task to peruse his books, for 
he has the trick of ending every chapter with a bang. He is admirably 
suited to supply the wants of periodicals to whose readers a sensational story 
is the one attraction, e. g. 

On the white dress of the child was traced, in letters of blood, the word 
' HELP !' 

This habit is contrary to every true principle of art, and is dictated, 
probably, by the wants of periodical literature. 

The characters in Mr. Collins's books are some of them very original 
and striking, being manifestly sketches from real life; but the situations in 
which these puppets are placed by the wire-puller are often wildly improb- 
able. ' Fact is stranger than fiction,' Mr. Collins will reply. Indeed, he 
threatens us with a production which shall put the plot of ' The Woman in 
White' in the shade, made from materials kindly sent him by various cor- 
respondents. These are, of course, narratives of fact. 

His English is not drawn from the purest fount, nor is his literary style 
to be compared with that of several living writers. He is a manufacturer 
of interesting works of fiction, pure and simple. He has made it his business 
in life. And, under the circumstances, it is perhaps a little provoking that 
he should so often ring the changes on such phrases as ' my art,' ' my pur- 
pose in writing the book,' ' the object I had in view,' &c., as each of his 
later novels has probably brought him 4000Z. 

We should place ' Man and Wife' among his best productions; but in 
literature he will be remembered as the author of ' The Woman in White.' 
That wonderful story made him famous. 


IT is about forty- two years since Mr. Tennyson issued his first volumes of 
poems. The young poet attracted little attention at the time, save from 
the critics, who could not understand ' this young man from Lincolnshire,' 
and so did the next best thing namely, abused his verses. In 1833, 
Tennyson, nothing daunted, made his second appearance, only to be abused 
again, but this time in a quarter where virulent condemnation was in that 
day at least generally accepted by a new author as the best testimonial 
to his true merit. The ' Quarterly,' having killed Keats or, at all events, 
having gained the reputation for doing it was ready, like the ogres of the 
old fables, to annihilate any new victim. Mr. Tennyson, in his earlier 
poems more evidently than in his more mature efforts, had drawn much of 
his turn of thought and imagination from the author of Endymion.' With 
a charming expression, therefore, of contrition for its former bad treatment 
of ' the harbinger of the milky way of poetry' as, even in its Jesuitical 
apology, the ' Quarterly' still chose to designate Keats it pointed its quill 
for the demolition of the later aspirant to poetic fame; with what ultimate 
success, the strong hold which Tennyson's writings have since taken on 
the affections of the reading portion of his countrymen is sufficiently palp- 
able. But it is useful sometimes, if only for the benefit of poets yet un- 
fledged, to point back to the rough handling which men who have now 
made their names encountered at the outset of their careers. And we do 
not know whether these very men, now reposing in the calm Hesperides of 
their success, are not inwardly thankful for the rough lessons which they 
received in the earlier days of their pilgrimage to fame. Faults and flaws 
have been pointed out, which the man of true genius has acknowledged to 
himself as the ordinary results of inexperience, and has accordingly rectified 
to the best of his power. 

In Tennyson's earlier poems, for instance, there was an air of affectation 


Alfred Tennyson. 79 

which, though pretty enough in its way, and a novel characteristic to a 
certain extent, yet betrayed a latent weakness. The same quality attaches 
to the Laureate's productions even now, to a limited extent. In fact, we 
doubt whether Tennyson could altogether get rid of the old trick; but his 
youthful effusions were overladen to a degree with these affectations. 

The critic of the * Quarterly' took good care to seize the weak points of 
the young Lincolnshire poet, and went mercilessly to work. 

If only as amusing pictures of the old style of criticism, which in this 
more polite age has rarely been seen except a few years ago in the coarse 
but vigorous criticisms of the ' Saturday Review,' when that journal pos- 
sessed a power in the world of letters it has since lost by the death or se- 
cession of the men who made it famous we may be excused for giving a 
few specimens of the reviewer's manner. 

The poet has sung : 

Then let wise Nature work her will, 

And on my clay her darnels grow ; 
Come only when the days are still, 

And at my headstone whisper low, 

And tell me 

' Now, what,' says the critic of the ' Quarterly,' ' would an ordinary bard 
wish to be told under such circumstances ? Why, perhaps how his sweet- 
heart was, or his child, or his family, or how the Reform Bill worked, or 
whether the last edition of the poems had been sold; papas ! our genuine 
poet's first wish is : 

And tell me if the woodbines blow. 

When, indeed, he shall have been thus satisfied as to the woodbines of 
the blowing of which, in their due season, he may, we think, feel pretty 
secure he turns a passing thought to his friend, and another to his mother. 

If thou art blest my mother's smile 

But such inquiries, short as they are, seem too commonplace; and he 
immediately glides back into his curiosity as to the state of the forwardness 
of the spring. 

8o Alfred Tennyson. 

If thou art blest my mother's smile 
Undimm'd if bees are on the wing. 

No, we believe the whole circle of poetry does not furnish such another 
instance of enthusiasm for the sights and sounds of the vernal season ! The 
sorrows of a bereaved mother rank after the blossoms of the woodbine, and 
just before the hummings of the bee; and this is all he has any curiosity 
about, for he proceeds : 

Then cease, my friend, a little while, 
That I may 

" send my love to my mother;" or " give you some hints about bees, which 
I have picked up from Aristseus in the Elysian Fields;" or " tell you how I 
am situated as to my own personal comforts in the world below" ? 0, no ! 

That I may hear the throstle sing 
His bridal song the boast of spring.' 

This is tolerably severe. The following lines, however, gave too pal- 
pable an opportunity for even the most obtuse critic to let slip : 

Sweet as the noise in parched plains 

Of bubbling wells that fret the stones 
(If any sense in me remains) 

Thy words will be, thy cheerful tones 

As welcome to my crumbling bones. 

And this is the commentary, 

' If any sense in me remains ! 

This doubt is inconsistent with the opening stanza of the piece, and, 
in fact, too modest. We take upon ourselves to reassure Mr. Tennyson, 
that, even after he shall be dead and buried, as much " sense" will still re- 
main as he has now the good fortune to possess.' 
Take the following again : 

1 The accumulation of tender images in the following lines appears not 
less wonderful : 

Alfred Tennyson. 81 

Remember you that pleasant day 

When, after roving in the woods 
Twas April then I came and lay 

Beneath those gummy chestnut buds I 
A water-rat from off the bank 

Plunged in the stream. With idle care, 
Down looking through the sedges rank, 

I saw your troubled image there. 
If you remember, you had set 

Upon the narrow casement-edge 
A long green box of mignonette, 

And you were leaning on the ledge. 

The poet's truth to nature in his " gummy chestnut buds," and to art 
in the " long green box" of mignonette, and that masterly touch of likening 
the first intrusion of love into the virgin bosom of the miller's daughter to 
the plunging of a water-rat into the mill-dam these are beauties which, 
we do not fear to say, equal anything even in Keats.' 

The most ardent admirers of Tennyson's earlier poems must confess 
that, in instances such as these, the poet laid himself open to the ridicule 
of an ill-natured reviewer. 

One more example of this, and we have done with the Laureate's more 
youthful efforts. In the ' Dream of Fair Women,' we all know the exqui- 
site description of Iphigenia, and have most of us noted that flaw in the 
closing lines, 

The tall masts quiver'd as they lay afloat ; 

The temples, and the people, and the shore ; 
One drew a sharp knife through my tender throat, 

Slowly, and nothing more. 

The critic's chance here is of course inevitable. 

' What touching simplicity ! What pathetic resignation ! " He cut 
my throat nothing more !" One might ask, " What more she would have?" ' 

The line has been altered in the later editions of the poet's works ; but 
we have merely recalled some of these earlier defects of the Laureate's 
muse to show that even great poets though born, not made must always 
owe much to long and elaborate culture, and must pass through the cru- 


82 Alfred Tennyson. 

cible in repeated refinings before their works are fit to remain the last 
polished evidences to posterity of their innate genius. 

Upon this principle, Tennyson is undoubtedly the most polished poet of 
modern times; but it is a question whether, in his extreme cultivation, he 
has not sacrificed much of that manly vigour which some of his contempo- 
raries Browning and Swinburne, for instance have displayed in their 
works, either with an unpopular abruptness, or, in the case of the latter poet 
at times, with a still more unpopular license. Yet Tennyson, with all his 
weaknesses, is Laureate of the day, as much by a pretty generally recognised 
right of sovereignty as by title. He has written much that is deliciously 
sweet much that is grandly chivalrous. His ear for the music of our fine 
old Saxon language is perfect. He is almost always intelligible; and, above 
all, he has never written a word to raise a blush even on the most modest 
cheek. He is a worthy successor of Wordsworth in the laureateship ; and 
although we have had greater poets even in this nineteenth century, and 
may yet see greater than those at present in the field before its close, Alfred 
Tennyson may well claim the first place among living bards. 

Indiscriminate praise, which popularity for the time being naturally 
induces, is always damaging to an author's permanent reputation. For this 
reason, at the risk of not being seconded in our opinions by the more en- 
thusiastic admirers of the Laureate, let us consider briefly the salient char- 
acteristics of Tennyson's writings. 

In the first place, except at occasional intervals, his poetry has been 
essentially objective rather than subjective. A lover of external things of 
beauty, a student of nature rather than of men, a dreamer rather than a 
man of action, he like his own ' Lotus Eaters' yields rather to the seduc- 
tive influence of sensuous attractions than to the impulse of more restless 
minds, who would fain step forth, and, taking the living world for their theme, 
suggest with prophetic voice the lessons which depend upon the present for 
the benefit of the unborn future. With rare instances has he touched upon 
the crying needs of the day upon the problems which our growing civilisa- 
tion all over the world is ever presenting. Calm, pensive, retrospective, he 
is most at his ease when drawing for the fountains of his inspiration from 
the mellow fancies of the old classical mythology or Arthurian legends. 

Alfred Tennyson. 83 

It may be objected that such poems as ' Locksley Hall' and ' Lady Clara 
Vere de Vere' are contradictions to this theory; but it must be remembered 
that these, after all, are but random wanderings from the main path which 
the Laureate first marked out for himself, and has, in the main, persistently 
trodden since. 

In his earlier poems we find him revelling in the old Homeric traditions, 
around which he has thrown the magic of a charm peculiarly his own. In 
these poems we hear, in that exquisite fragment, ' Morte d' Arthur,' the first 
tentative notes of the song which was later on to burst into the wondrous 
and sustained melody of his masterpiece, the ' Idylls of the King.' And on 
this poem, above all others, we think Tennyson's reputation must rest with 
later generations. Almost Homeric in its breadth and simplicity, it com- 
bines the homely pathos, the picturesque variety, and the teeming allegory 
of our elder minstrels, with the polished grace which springs from a com- 
plete command of the highest resources of modern art. The exquisite blank 
verse of which, perhaps, no greater master than Tennyson can be named 
flows on with an utter disguise of all elaboration and effort. Art has 
concealed the traces of art. There is no perceptible straining after effect, 
no struggling to elaborate startling points. The narrative is told with ex- 
quisite grace and beauty; and some of the charming lyrics which form the 
interludes have a delicious cadence which haunts the memory like a melody 
of Mendelssohn's. 

In the ' Idylls of the King' we see Tennyson's characteristic merits at 
their highest. In it he has taken a field for himself, in which all imitators 
and they have been many, no less a poet than Lord Lytton among the 
number have signally failed; and here at least, in his capacity of throwing 
a radiance of new life and beauty about the mouldering legends of antiquity, 
the Laureate has proved himself unrivalled by living bards. 

To compare him with, or to gauge him by, the standard of any of his 
famous predecessors, as has been sometimes done, would be idle. Like all 
great artists, he has learnt and adapted from the finest models before him. 
Beyond this, he is a poet per se, and this is his greatest praise. 

Mr. Tennyson was born in 1810 at the parsonage of Somerby, a quiet 
hamlet in the neighbourhood of Spilsby, in Lincolnshire. Somerby and 

84 Alfred Tennyson. 

Enderby form a rectory once held by the poet's father, the Kev. George 
Clayton Tennyson, D.D., the eldest brother of Mr. Tennyson D'Eyncourt, 
who was for some years member of Parliament for one of the metropolitan 
boroughs. As a boy, the future Poet Laureate was sent to the, grammar- 
school of Louth, and afterwards proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge 
Thackeray being at the University at the same time. In 1829 he gained 
the Chancellor's medal for the best English poem, the subject for the year 
being ' Timbuctoo.' 

After leaving Cambridge, he spent much of his time in travelling about 
from place to place, from London to Hastings, Hastings to Cheltenham, to 
Eastbourne, to Twickenham everywhere, in fact, where he might find food 
for that love of the beautiful in nature so characteristic of his poems. His 
first productions, as we have already said, attracted little public notice; but 
when people became awake to the nervous passion of ' Locksley Hall,' the 
indignant satire of ' Lady Clara Yere de Vere,' the tender beauty of ' The 
May Queen,' and the sensuous elegance of such poems as ' A Dream of Fair 
Women,' ' The Sleeping Beauty,' and ' The Palace of Art,' his claim as a 
poet of a high order was universally admitted. 

How emphatically he has strengthened and enlarged his reputation by 
those later and more ambitious works with which we are all familiar, needs 
no remark. 

On the death of Wordsworth, Mr. Tennyson was, it is generally under- 
stood at the express desire of the Queen, in 1851 appointed Poet Laureate; 
and he received at the same time, from Sir Robert Peel, the grant of a 
pension of 2001. per annum. 

From this time he began to produce those works with which his fame 
is more eminently associated. For twenty years he has been Laureate; 
and during that period we have had at intervals for Tennyson is by no 
means a prolific author 'Maud,' which appeared in 1855; the 'Idylls of 
the King,' in 1858; ' Enoch Arden,' in 1864; ' The Holy Grail,' in 1869; and 
' Gareth and Lynette' in 1872. Besides these, he has contributed occasional 
poems to the magazines, the most notable among these being ' Tithonus,' 
which first appeared in the 'Cornhill Magazine;' and the fine philosophic 
study entitled ' Lucretius,' in Macmillan.' 


THE late Rev. Norman Macleod, D.D., one of her Majesty's chaplains for 
Scotland, was born in 1812. His father, of the same name as himself, was 
in his time a distinguished minister of the Church of Scotland, in which the 
son held such a prominent place. 

Dr. Macleod was educated at the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow ; 
and, after holding various minor preferments in the Established Church of 
Scotland, was appointed minister of the Barony Church in Glasgow. 

He was known as the author of many valuable and interesting works ; 
and perhaps the most noticeable, his book entitled ' Eastward,' based upon 
his experiences of travels which he made in Palestine and the neighbouring 
countries some years ago, added largely to his reputation as an attractive 
writer. Dr. Macleod also went, in 1867, on a journey of inspection among 
the principal missionary stations of India a thousand pounds having been 
previously voted to him for travelling expenses from the funds devoted to 
missionary enterprises by the Established Church of Scotland. 

Some of the more interesting results of his investigations were given in 
' Good Words,' of which Dr. Macleod was the editor from the first establish- 
ment of that magazine in the year 1860 to his death. These notes have 
since been reprinted in a volume form, under the title of ' Peeps at the Far 
East ; or a Familiar Account of a Visit to India.' 

Of his other numerous literary works, we may mention the 'Home School ; 
or Hints on Home Education,' ' Simple Truths spoken to Working Men'- 
addressed more immediately to the congregation of the working classes of 
the Barony Mission Chapel 'Deborah,' 'Reminiscences of a Highland 
Parish,' and, perhaps one of the most successful of all his works, ' The 
Earnest Student.' Although only a brief sketch, one of the most character- 


Norman Macleod, D.D, 87 

istic examples of his style of thought and expression is a short disquisition 
on 'Social Life in Heaven' one of the papers in a collection entitled 
' Recognition of Friends in Heaven,' the joint production of the Bishop of 
Ripon, Dr. Macleod, J. B. Owen, M.A., and three other authors. Dr. Mac- 
leod wrote also an interesting Scottish story, ' The Starling. 


MB. ANDREW HALLIDAY DUFF so well known in connection with literature 
and the drama as Mr. Andrew Halliday is the son of the Rev. William 
Duff, of Grange, Banffshire, whose family is derived from Macduff, thane of 
Fife. He was born in 1830, and was educated at the Marischal College 
and University of Aberdeen, where he applied himself to the study of the 
classics, under Professor John Stuart Blackie. 

Mr. Halliday began his literary career in London as a contributor to 
the 'Morning Chronicle,' and afterwards joined the 'Leader,' also contributing 
largely to various newspapers in London and the provinces. He next turned 
his attention to the stage ; and in 1858, in conjunction with Mr. Lawrence, 
wrote the burlesque of ' Kenilworth,' which achieved a remarkable success 
at the Strand Theatre, and has held the stage ever since, having been con- 
stantly revived in London and the provinces. Mr. Halliday produced two 
other burlesques, one founded on ' Romeo and Juliet,' brought out at the 
Strand, the other on the subject of ' The Lady of the Lake,' and entitled 
' Mountain Dhu,' at the Adelphi. In conjunction with the late Mr. William 
Brough, he wrote a great number of original farces, which were produced 
at the Adelphi, Drury-lane, the Lyceum, and other theatres. The principal 
of these were ' The Census,' ' The Pretty Horsebreaker,' ' A Valentine,' ' A 
Shilling Day at the Exhibition,' ' The Area Belle,' : Doing Banting,' ' The 
Actor's Retreat,' ' My Heart's in the Highlands,' ' An April Fool,' ' Going 
to the Dogs,' ' The Mudborough Election,' ' The Colleen Bawn Married and 
Settled,' and a petite drama entitled ' The Wooden-Spoon Maker.' 

In 1861, Mr. Halliday joined Charles Dickcns's staff on ' All the Year 
Round,' and contributed regularly to that periodical until Mr. Dickens's 
death. He wrote at the same time for the ' CornhilF and other magazines. 
Mr. Halliday's collected essays were published in three separate volumes, 
respectively entitled 'Everyday Papers,' ' Sunnyside Papers,' and 'Town 



Andrew Halliday. 89 

and Country.' The ' Everyday Papers' went through several editions, and 
enjoyed a remarkable success. The 'Examiner,' criticising these essays, 
said : 

1 Mr. Halliday has a lively wit, with a soul to it in his quick wholesome 
feeling. He writes with a light touch, but without frivolity ; his gaiety is 
intellectual, his English accurate. His papers, light and refreshing, supply 
already to our current literature some of the best of the reading that seeks 
chiefly to amuse. We are convinced that they are the earnest of better 
things to come.' 

A criticism by no means too favourable. 

In 1867, Mr. Halliday produced his first important dramatic work, ' The 
Great City,' at Drury-lane. It was brought out on Easter Monday. The 
piece had at Drury-lane the unprecedented run of a hundred nights. 
' King o' Scots,' ' Amy Robsart,' and ' Rebecca' followed, each piece carrying 
the manager triumphantly through the entire season, without the necessity 
for change. In 1869, he produced ' Little Em'ly,' an adaptation of ' David 
Copperfield' with the sanction of Mr. Dickens which ran two hundred 
nights at the Olympic Theatre. ' Nell,' an adaptation of The Old Curiosity 
Shop,' followed at the same house. 'Notre Dame' was produced at the 
Adelphi on Easter Monday 1871. The piece had a run of two hundred 
and fifty-six nights. 

Mr. Halliday was the editor of the ' Savage-Club Papers,' very popular 
.among a large class of readers. 

Mr. Chatterton said, at Drury-lane, ' Byron spelt bankruptcy and Shak- 
speare ruin' for him as a manager. With Mr. Halliday's assistance, he has 
had some of the greatest successes ever known at Drury-lane. 


THE Reverend Charles Kingsley, M.A., rector of Eversley, canon of Chester, 
one of her Majesty's chaplains, tutor to the Prince of Wales, and Pro- 
fessor of Modern History in the University of Cambridge, was born on 
the 12th of June 1819 at Holme Vicarage, on the borders of Dartmoor. 
He became at fourteen a pupil of the Ilev. Derwent Coleridge son of 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge and afterwards was a student at King's College, 
London. He then entered at Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he was 
a scholar and prizeman whilst in statu pupillari, and concluded his under- 
graduate career with a good degree first class in classics, and second class 
in mathematics. 

Mr. Kingsley entered the Church; and his first cure was the rectory he 
now holds ; for a year and a half after his entering upon his curacy the 
living became vacant, and the patron, Sir John Cope, presented it to the 
curate, who has ever since been rector of Eversley. 

Charles Kingsley's name, however, was to be known and honoured, far 
away from his little Hampshire parish, as the writer of works of fiction 
which are strikingly original, pure in their moral teaching, honest and noble 
in their purpose, and have placed their author high in the ranks of writers 
of imaginative literature. 

The list of Mr. Kingsley's works includes ' Westward Ho! or the Voyages 
and Adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh,' now in a sixth edition; a splendid 
story, photographing for the reader the grand scenery of the newly found 
continent of America, and exhibiting the adventurous and noble spirit of 
the age in which the scenes of Sir Amyas Leigh's adventures are laid. 

' Two Years Ago,' and the author's latest book, ' At Last : a Christmas 
in the West Indies,' contain likewise much of that word-painting, applied 
to the description of natural scenery, in which Charles Kingsley is a master. 

' Hypatia ; or New Foes with an Old Face,' is a most interesting story 


Canon Kingsley. 91 

of an early state of society, in which the author has completely thrown him- 
self back into the period he has written about, with such a power of artistic 
reality as to make his characters live again. 

' Yeast : a Problem,' and ' Alton Locke,' are books that deal with social 
problems arising out of a high state of civilisation; and although now much 
in ' Alton Locke' belongs to a bygone generation, such characters as the 
Young Tailor-Poet and Old Sandy Mackaye will always charm and interest 
those who make their acquaintance. 

'Water Babies' and 'The Heroes' are two books of fairy tales for children. 
Considering their object, they are admirable productions, and very much 
more acceptable to a child than such books as ' Lewis Carroll's' tales. 

' Hereward the Wake, Last of the English,' is a story of the time of the 
Norman Conquest ; a period of history with which the author is perfectly 
acquainted : it was the subject of some of his lectures at Cambridge, where 
he was the more popular of the two popular professors Mr. Fawcett, M.P. 
for Brighton, was the other. His manner of delivering his addresses on 
history, from the high chair in the old cellar called the Arts School, was 
very piquant. He is reported to have summed up a great event in English 
history thus : ' Gentlemen, believe me, if Edward the Confessor had only 
had the common decency to get married, there would have been no Norman 
Conquest in England.' We will not vouch for the verbal accuracy of the 
sentence, but the learned professor said something to the same effect. The 
undergraduates used to cheer him, and strangers in Cambridge always went 
to hear him lecture. He was never dry, often he was eloquent; but he had 
an odd way of ending his bursts with a sentence something like that given 

He was popular in the University; at his own college he was beloved. 
When he was the only Don to go in to the high table, and a few minutes 
late, and, according to custom, the undergraduates were waiting for a Don 
to say grace before they could begin, contemplating with impatience the 
cooling dishes, the Professor of History, who knows the British nature well, 
would instruct the butler to ' Tell those poor boys not to wait for me : let 
them begin their dinner.' 

It is curious to note that the critics were very severe with Kingsley and 

92 Canon Kingsley. 

F. D. Maurice about the same time and for the same reasons under the 
disguise of Christian Socialism they would level everything into nothing- 
ness, if they could. They have triumphed, and their names are honoured 
above those of most men of their generation. No writers of our time have 
done more for truth and manliness, or sown seed more likely to bear fruit 
in its season. It was in 1859 that Charles Kingsley was appointed to his 
Cambridge professorship, and we owe at least two of his best works to his 
study of what, at that University, is called ' Modern History.' 


MR. GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA was born in London about the year 1826. He 
is the son of a Portuguese gentleman, who married an English lady. 
Having adopted literature as his profession, Mr. Sala became a writer in 
' Household Words,' which was edited by the late Charles Dickens. He 
also contributed to the ' Illustrated London News,' ' Cornhill Magazine,' 
and other papers and periodicals, until, in 1863, he went out to the United 
States as special correspondent for the ' Daily Telegraph.' On his return, 
he published his observations under the title of ' My Diary in America in 
the Midst of War.' 

He also wrote a series of very graphic letters for the ' Daily Telegraph' 
from Algeria, during the Emperor's visit to that colony. 

The following is a list of Mr. Sala's best-known works : ' A Journey 
due North: a Eesidence in Russia,' 1856; ' How I tamed Mrs. Cruiser,' 
1858; ' Twice Round the Clock,' 1859; ' Gaslight and Daylight,' 1859; 
'The Baddington Peerage,' 1860; 'Lady Chesterfield's Letters to her 
Daughter,' 1860; 'William Hogarth,' 1860; 'Looking at Life,' 1860; 
'Make your Game,' 1860; ' Dutch Pictures,' 1861; 'Accepted Addresses,' 
1862; 'Breakfast in Bed,' 1863; 'After Breakfast;' 'The Perfidy of Captain 
Slyboots,' 1863; 'Quite Alone' (finished by another writer), 1864; 'Rob- 
son: a Sketch,' 1864; 'Seven Sons of Mammon,' 1864; 'My Diary in 
America in the Midst of War,' 1865; ' From Waterloo to the Peninsula,' 
1866; 'A Trip to Barbary by a Roundabout Route,' 1866; ' The Strange 
Adventures of Captain Dangerous,' 1869; 'The Two Prima Donnas,' 1869; 
' Rome and Venice,' 1869. 

' Gaslight and Daylight' is composed of short papers of very great 
humour and merit. ' Papers Humorous and Pathetic' contains ' The Key 
of the Street,' ' Colonel Quagg's Conversion,' and other sketches, arranged 
by the author in a form suitable for public reading. Better papers for plat- 




Born August 31, 1809 ; died Jtine i, 1872. 

Two worlds there are in which we live and move 
The world of fiction and the world of fact : 

One of King Magic, whom his subjects love; 
One of King Fate, wherein we talk and act. 

In one, the good men fail, the bad succeed ; 

Age carves its lines too soon on buxom youth : 
Man falls ignobly in the hour of need, 

And woman's faith beats down our faith in truth. 

Here sickness weakens ; here high purpose dies ; 

Here lofty aims are kill'd ; hero few are brave ; 
Here, torn by vultures, great Prometheus lies ; 

Here hope is crush' d, work bounded by the grave- 

But there, O great magicians ! there we dwell, 
Robed in forgetfulness of present woe, 

Languid and still, on beds of asphodel, 

"While the unheeded hours pass by and go. 

There beauty fades not, smiles change not to tears, 
Mirth never palls, and wine doth not destroy ; 

Love is immortal, manhood has no fears ; 

No cloud is there 'tween sunshine and our jov. 

O world of fiction ! all unreal, yet true 

What fit thanks can we frame our debt to meet ? 

And for thy chiefs what crown of praise is due, 
If any crown is dear to them we greet '? 

The kings and statesmen pass across the stage 
They vex the world and us and then they die : 

Forgotten soon, save where on history's page 

Dry lists of dead men's names make schoolbovs sigh. 

THYSELF IN THY LIKENESS. Janfett, act iii. sc. z. 

Charles Lever. 99 

But these, our writers when one dies, the hours 
Arc hush'd awhile, because they could not save ; 

And smiles and tears, like sunshine cross'd by flowers, 
Arch an eternal rainbow o'er his grave. 

Never forgotten yet we mourn his loss, 

As of some friend long loved and deeply tried ; 
Or as of sunshine that has lain across 

So long, we eem d it ne'er would leave our side. 

Therefore, when tidings came, how in fair spring 

Death had seized one whose heart no winter knew, 

Great sadness fell on us, remembering 

Days of our youth, when things seem'd fair and true ; 

When we lay, deep beneath the apple shade, 

In an old orchard all the afternoon ; 
Above us, pink and white, the blossoms spread ; 

Flowers at our feet, and all around us June. 

And then we read the tales of war and Spain ; 

Of revelry and Ireland, sword and gown ; 
Of love that mock'd at bars put up in vain ; 

Of hardihood that trampled danger down ; 

Proctors and doctors, nndergrads, dragoons, 

Vivandieres, and priests, and muleteers gay ; 
Groves dear to maidens, soldiers, stars, and moons, 

Swept past our fancy in their wild array. 

And is he dead, who told so well whose pen 

Grew wise, but never dull whose laughter rang, 

If not so loud, as genial still as when 

Among his Dublin monks he drank and sang? 

Farewell, Charles Lever ! Could fate overlook, 

But for one other work, thy fruitful days. 
Farewell ! the world is gloomier. Ill we brook 

To lose thy voice in Joy's small choir of Praise. 

Charles James Lever, the writer of so many brilliant works of fiction, 
was born in Dublin, in the year 1809. He was educated there at Trinity 
College, and was originally intended to follow the medical profession ; but 

ioo Charles Lever. 

he soon abandoned physic for literature, and so followed the bent of his 
great natural genius. From ' Harry Lorrequer,' completed about the year 
1836, to ' Lord Kilgobbin,' only recently finished in ' The Cornhill,' Charles 
Lever wrote a very large number of works of fiction of great merit. His 
wise and witty essays in ' Blackwood,' under the nom de plume of Cornelius 
O'Dowd, have been universally admired, as have his numerous contribu- 
tions to ' All the Year Round,' ' St. Pauls,' and the columns of ' Once a 
Week.' The proximate cause of his death which took place at Trieste, on 
the 1st of June 1872 was disease of the heart. This sad event was expected 
by his relatives and friends, and calmly contemplated by himself. His 
letters of late were full of allusions to the shattered state of his health, and 
he often mentioned his belief that he had not long to live. Still his bright- 
ness and fun never left him, and he was the good, genial, and amiable 
Charles Lever to the last days of his life; and every reader of his writings 
will cordially echo the words of a writer in ' Blackwood,' that ' we have 
lost in Charles Lever one of those brilliant and cheering lights the extinc- 
tion of which may be said to " eclipse the gaiety of nations." 


A VERY interesting and amusing book, entitled ' The Recollections and Re- 
flections of J. R. Planche (Somerset Herald),' has recently been given to 
the world. 

Mr. Planche's grandfather was a French refugee, but his parents, both of 
French stock, were born in London. The author of the ' Recollections' made 
his first appearance on life's stage in Old Burlington-street, on the 27th of 
February 1796. He is therefore seventy-six years of age, and is as active 
in the prosecution of his literary pursuits as ever he was. Besides publish- 
ing this year the book above mentioned, he has furnished the stage with the 
lyrical parts of ' Babil and Bijou/ Mr. Boucicault's great show at Covent- 
garden. Mr. Planche's father was an eminent watchmaker, and attracted 
the notice of George HI., who often chatted with him in the most familiar 
manner. He tells this characteristic anecdote of that monarch : 

One day, going to St. James's with the king's watch, which had been 
mended, he told the page that the ribbon was rather dirty. 

The king overheard this, and coming to the door, said : 

' What is that, Planche ? what is that ?' 

Mr. Planche repeated his remark about the state of the royal ribbon, 
and suggested a new one. 

' New ribbon, Planche !' said the king. ' What for ? Can't it be washed?' 

This excellent gentleman, having known what it was to be very poor, 
determined that his son should learn some useful profession or trade. At 
first, the subject of our notice tried artistic pursuits, but having a very strong 
development of the cacoethes scribendi, he chose to be articled to a book- 
seller. Soon after, he turned his attention to play writing, and became dis- 
tinguished as an amateur actor of his own characters. His early recollections 
date back to the destruction by fire of both the great national theatres; the 
Old -Prices row at new Covent- garden; the Young -Roscius mania; the 



. R. Planche. 103 

retirement of John Kemble and Mrs. Siddons ; and the appearance of 
Edmund Kean and Miss O'Ncil. 

In 1818 ' Amoroso,' a piece of his own, was produced at Drury - lane, 
and for fifty-four years Mr. Planche has been writing for the stage. In 1820 
the ' Vampire' was brought out at the Lyceum. 

It was three years after this that Mr. Planche began his reform of the 
costume of the stage : he designed the dresses for ' King John,' in accordance- 
with the true dresses of the period, gratuitously for John Kemble. On the 
subject of costume, Mr. Plane-lie is the greatest authority we have. It is a 
matter to which he has devoted many years of earnest study ; and he may 
be regarded as the originator of correct dressing on the stage. This re- 
habilitation of the characters in ' King John' was thoroughly successful, and, 
he says, ' a complete reformation of dramatic costume became from that 
moment inevitable on the English stage.' 

On the subject of old armour, too, Mr. Planche is a great authority; and 
he more than once arranged the splendid collection of the late Sir Samuel 
Meyrick for public exhibition. 

While his own story of his life is by no means overburdened by 
reflections, it contains a fund of most interesting recollections. Without 
following the autobiographer year by year, we may say, in a few words, 
that it has been the fortune of the amiable and accomplished playwriter 
and antiquary to know intimately almost all the notabilities of the stage 
who have flourished from his youth to the present day; whilst in society he 
has been everywhere welcome, and has seen and known nearly everybody of 
social distinction ; his office of Herald has brought him into immediate 
contact with kings and courts ; and his descriptions of courtly scenes, at 
home and abroad, are not the least interesting portion of his memoirs. 


MISSIONS to the United States have become quite the rage of late years ; 
the passion for crossing the Atlantic seems to have seized a number of 
English literary men at about the same time, and probably for much the 
same reason. They had seen one or two very popular authors come back 
to their native land with pockets crammed with Yankee dollars, a result 
very desirable in itself; Avhile the reports that reached England of the 
dinners, receptions, and galas given in honour of white elephants in the 
States filled these untravelled authors with delight. Added to all this, a 
sea voyage is said to have a fine effect in setting up constitutions enervated 
by a humdrum existence at home. Among these birds of passage one of 
the latest to wing his flight over the stormy ocean is Mr. Edmund Yates, 
an English novelist now on a tour, the object of which is to correct Ame- 
rican misimpressions of the state of English institutions, society, and 

Mr. Yates is the son of the well-known actor, who was for a consider- 
able period lessee of the old Adclphi Theatre. He was born in July 1831, 
and, like Mr. Anthony Trollopc, has been connected with the Civil Service. 
Mr. Yates was for some time chief of the Missing-Letter Department in the 
Post Office. During his literary career he has been a constant contributor to 
periodical literature; and was for six years theatrical critic of the 'Daily 
News.' He was also at one time the editor of ' Temple Bar.' The articles 
signed ' The Flaneur,' in the late ' Morning Star,' were from his pen. His 
best novels are ' Broken to Harness,' 1864; ' Running the Gauntlet,' 1865; 
Black Sheep,' 1867; 'A Waiting Race,' and' The Yellow Flag,' 1872. 



CAPTAIN WARREN'S name is so well known as associated with the recent 
excavations at Jerusalem as to need but little notice. These works were 
carried on in the teeth of the most formidable difficulties; against religious 
prejudices which had to be carefully ' managed,' against an unhealthy climate, 
against shortness in the finance department, and against great personal risks. 
We are not here going to recall the leading features of those explorations ; 
suffice it to say that their results are of such great importance as to set the 
question of the holy sites upon an entirely different footing. Other tra- 
vellers have preceded Captain Warren; none of them explored as he did, 
nor perhaps ever wilt again. 

The shafts pierced through the rubbish were little holes, from three to 
four feet square. Their sides were walled up with wood, which was con- 
tinually being ' started.' They were pierced to a depth sometimes of eighty, 
ninety, or even a hundred feet; galleries being run out from thence to 
examine along a wall, or to follow up a trace Sometimes an aqueduct 
would be discovered, dry and empty, or foul with the tricklings of sewage 
overhead. Down this would crawl El Captan, as the Arabs called him, 
note-book in hand and pencil in mouth, measuring, sketching, and exa- 
mining; for nothing must be left undescribed. Who could tell but that some 
lucky accident, some unexpected clue, might not lead at once to the solution 
of all the difficulties ? Then the stuff through which the digging had to be 
conducted was so penetrated with the sewage of the town, that if the fingers 
were ever so slightly scratched, festering would ensue. And which was 
the greatest anxiety of all the lives of a hundred workmen and more, to 
say nothing of the gallant non-commissioned officers under his charge, were 
in the hands of Captain Warren. An error of judgment, a carelessly pro- 
tected shaft, and all would be over in a moment. During all his work, he 
never lost a man. 


Captain Warren, R.E. 107 

The account, chiefly an official statement, of his results was published 
originally in a connected form in ' The Recovery of Jerusalem.' The work 
was intended for students; and those who had not made what is called the 
Jerusalem question a serious study found it a dry and uninteresting work, 
lightened by the little bits of personal adventure. The Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund have issued a popular account of all their work, in continuous 
order, including the researches of the other officers who have worked for 
them. In this account full justice is done to the pluck, intelligence, and 
zeal of the gallant officer whose portrait we have given. Captain Warren, 
we have only to add, has found himself unable to go out again to the 
Holy Land; and has rejoined his corps, the Royal Engineers. 


MR. JOHN RUSKIN was born in London in 1819. He gained the Newdigate 
Prize for English verse at Oxford in 1839. Four years afterwards, in 1843, 
the first volume of his great work, ' Modern Painters,' appeared. The ob- 
ject with which the book was begun was a very noble one. It was to defend 
an old man and very great artist from the attacks of critics, who neither 
understood Turner's pictures nor his art. On its first appearance the book 
was rather scoffed at ; but as it contained great truths about art, expressed 
in language of unsurpassed purity and eloquence, it soon made its way into 
circles beyond the reach of the critics. Three years afterwards, the second 
volume of ' Modern Painters' was published. Ten years after that, the third 
volume appeared ; and it was not until 1860 that the book was completed. 

Altogether, seventeen years elapsed between the first appearance of 
' Modern Painters' and the completion of this great work. 

It would be impossible in a small space to give a clear analysis of the 
contents of the five volumes of which it is composed. The motive for the 
publication of the first volume we have stated. This was the vindication 
of the greatest genius the English school of painters has produced from the 
calumnies of the then existing writers on art. 

Turner was the butt of their ignorance. The only element necessary 
to the composition of a critic they seem to have possessed was an acquaint- 
ance with the art of penmanship. That generation has passed away ; and we 
may thank Mr. Ruskin for having left the race of art-critics who have taken 
the place of the writers of 1843 no excuse for being ignorant of the elements 
or sources of pleasure in art ideas of truth, of beauty, and of relation. 

' In these books of mine,' says their author, ' their distinctive character 
as essays on art is their bringing everything to a root in a human passion 
or hope ;' and he adds that they arose first, ' not in any desire to explain 


John Ruskin. 

the principles of art, but in the endeavour to defend an individual painter 
from injustice.' 

In that endeavour, it is now almost superfluous to say, the book was en- 
tirely successful. The high prices that Turner's latest and less generally 
admired pictures brought in his own lifetime, and the magnificent sums 
that even drawings of a few inches square from his hand have been sold for 
since his death, prove the efficiency of Ruskin's advocacy. 

He did ' defend an individual painter from injustice' that painter the 
greatest of his age with a penetration into the hidden truths of art; a 
critical insight invaluable and perhaps unique ; a clearness of argument, a 
splendour of imaginative illustration, and an eloquence and purity of diction, 
which have hardly been surpassed by any English writer. No inconsider- 
able part of the estimation in which the works of the miserly and eccentric 
genius a barber's son, who saw scarlet in the sky are held to-day among 
the dilettanti is the result of Euskin's criticism upon them. 

The author of ' Modern Painters' is not only the first among English 
art-critics, but he is the first of them. Before his time, no writer on art of 
our country had a European reputation. The name of Reynolds was well 
known, it is true, in connection not only with his works as a painter, but 
with his ' Discourses' delivered when he was President of the Academy ; 
but although these lectures contained much information gathered during a 
long and laborious study of art, they are, after all, but a text-book for stu- 
dents, and owe their modern reputation to the simple and chaste style in 
which they are written, and the excellent advice they give to young artists, 
rather than to any pretensions either to elevated criticism or masterly ac- 
quaintance with the whole of the wide subject on which they treat. 

We once heard a bishop recommend their perusal to a number of young 
men whom he had ordained, as models for their sermons, on the ground 
that Sir Joshua's celebrated ' Discourses' contained ' very fine moral precepts, 
besides being written in very elegant English.' 

This was true. Though the President's lectures had neither the fire of 
Burke, nor the wit and power of Johnson, they possessed great literary 
merit, and were as much above the art-writers of their day as Ruskin's 
' Modern Painters' was above the criticism of 1843. 

i io J-ohn Ruskm. 

At the present day there are many competent writers on art topics 
who furnish the critiques on recent exhibitions to the papers and maga- 
zines; but a quarter of a century ago ignorance of the principles and 
practice of art seems to have been a passport to the post of art-critic. 

On a most influential North -of -England paper, furnished for many 
years with independent reports on all matters of importance, this post of 
art-critic- being, as it was thought, easy and desirable went by seniority: 
the oldest reporter got it. And we well remember hearing an anecdote of a 
respectable parliamentary reporter of the paper to whom the post of art 
and theatrical critic was offered. He accepted it as a matter of course. 
Being conscientious, he thought a little knowledge necessary, and asked a 
friend a few days after, ' What does' (naming a great musician) ' charge 
a lesson, do you know ?' ' Good dear me, F , why, at your time of life, 
you are never going to learn the fiddle !' ' No,' was the reply; ' but I've 
got to do the music and so on for the " - - Guardian," and I mean to 
take two or three lessons, for I know no more of music than a cow.' 

We believe that the London papers of thirty or forty years ago were dealt 
with in much the same way; and a number of intelligent and honest gen- 
tlemen, who knew no more of painting than a cow, ' did' the criticisms. 
And nothing is easier than to parade the jargon of art language to talk 
of light, shade, and effect, chiaroscuro, distance, colour, hardness, softness, 
tint, and so on through the critic's vocabulary. 

How differently Ruskin went to work ! He studied hard : learned to 
paint under J. D. Harding and Copley Fielding, and then, when he was 
familiar with the methods by which effects are produced in a word, an 
artist himself he wrote about art. 

How carefully he laboured to acquire knowledge in his favourite pur- 
suit may be illustrated by this simple confession. ' The winter,' he says, 
' was spent mainly in trying to get at the mind of Titian not a light 
winter's task; of which the issue, being in many ways very unexpected to 
me, necessitated my going in the spring to Berlin to see Titian's portrait 
of Lavinia there, and to Dresden to see " The Tribute Money," the elder 
Lavinia, and Girl in White with the flag fan. Another portrait at Dresden 
of a lady in a dress of rose and gold by me unheard of before and one 


\ \ \ 

of an admiral at Munich, had like to have kept me in Germany all the 

How different such work as this from that of the critic who learnt har- 
mony and thorough bass in three lessons, and then thought fit to 

Assume the god 
Affect to nod 

on the merits of every new composition ! But those times have probably 
gone by for ever, as far as the better class of London journals is concerned, 
though the artistic and literary criticism of country papers is at this day 
funny in the extreme. 

We have said that the first volume of Ruskin's great work met with an 
indifferent reception at the hands of the literary critics of the year 1843. 
But the book made its way indeed, it was impossible that it should be 
otherwise and its author became famous. One axiom forms the basis of 
the work : ' The art is greatest which conveys the greatest number of great 
ideas.' The first volume shows what painters have best imitated Nature. 
The second treats of Beauty, typical and vital. Perhaps this volume con- 
tains the finest of Ruskin's writing. The subject, almost illimitable, is 
treated with a master's hand. The author of ' Modern Painters' has pro- 
duced a book which has no parallel in any European language. It is im- 
possible here to do any justice even to an outline of its contents, and we do 
not attempt it, but refer our readers to the book itself. 

So far, we have spoken chiefly of his magnum opus. Mr. Ruskin's other 
works are, 'Seven Lamps of Architecture,' 1849; 'The Stones of Venice,' 
1851-53; 'Construction of Sheepfolds;' 'Two Paths;' 'Harbours of England;' 
' Political Economy of Art;' 'Unto this Last;' ' Sesame and Lilies;' ' Ethics 
of Dust;' 'Kings' Treasuries and Queens' Gardens;' 'War, Commerce, and 
Work;' ' Letters to a Working Man;' ' A Wreath of Wild Olives.' 

There is no more honoured name in contemporary English literature 
than that of John Ruskin. In his books he has discharged the noblest 
functions of a writer ; but it were enough to make him famous in his 
generation had he done no more than teach our Philistine art-critics what 
is the true standard to which art criticism should be raised. 

W. H. SMITH, M.P. 

PORTRAITS of the Member for Westminster have been published in various 
illustrated papers since he was successful in carrying off the ' blue ribbon' 
among electioneering contests in November 1868 ; and his features are now 
as well known to the public as those of any member of the House of Com- 
mons not a minister, ex-minister, or great party leader. 

Mr. Smith was born in London in 1825, and is the head of the firm of 
W. H. Smith & Son, 186 Strand, whose various branch establishments, in 
the shape of railway book-stalls, are familiar to every traveller. The great 
house in the Strand was founded by the father of the subject of the present 
memoir. Forty years ago, when the London daily papers were fresh in the 
north of England forty-eight hours after their publication in the metropolis, 
when London and Manchester were that distance of time apart, all news- 
papers sent into the country passed through the Post Office. It occurred to 
Mr. Smith that, instead of waiting for the night mail and the agency of the 
Post Office, the morning papers might be sent off by the early morning 
coaches. As the earliest editions of the papers were often later than the 
times fixed for the departure of the coaches, Mr. Smith had great trouble 
to catch them. To overcome this difficulty, he established a system of ex- 
press carts, which rattled along the turnpikes after the morning coaches till 
they caught them. On occasions of the greatest importance, these expresses 
of Mr. Smith's went the whole way at a great expense, of course. For 
instance, Smith's express messenger, with newspapers conveying the news 
of George IV.'s death, arrived in Dublin before the king's messenger 
reached that city. 

Coaches went out and railways came in. Mr. Smith, first in the coach- 
ing days, was first under the new regime, and from the beginning has sup- 
plied almost every traveller by railway with his newspaper and his book. 
The enterprise and successes of the house, culminating in the election of 



IV. H. Smith, M. P. 113 

the head of the firm to fill the place of John Stuart Mill, as representative 
of one of the first constituencies in the kingdom, would afford matter for 
a fine chapter in commercial history. 

Mr. William Henry Smith is a liberal Conservative in politics, an active 
member of the London School Board, a magistrate for the county of Herts, 
and a member of the Council of King's College. An able and ready debater, 
in the House of Commons his speeches are always listened to with marked 
attention, and his opinions carry great weight with them. The Member 
for Westminster addresses the House only when he has something of real 
importance to say. He is active in the discharge of his parliamentary 
duties, an invaluable man on committees, and has as high a reputation as 
any member of the House for the possession of that too rare quality sound 
common sense. 


THOMAS CARLYLE, the ' Philosopher of Chelsea,' and one of the most pro- 
minent and original writers of his time, was born almost in the last lustrum 
of the last century. At Ecclefechan, in Dumfriesshire, he first saw the light, 
on the 4th of December 1795. All we can attempt will be to jot down 
some of the more noteworthy incidents in his life. To try to criticise the 
writings, to make a correct estimate of the genius of Carlyle, and endea- 
vour to indicate his future place among the writers of his age, would take 
a volume, if the work were fairlv done. Most writers who have had him 


under notice have said this, and in their next paragraph have fallen into 
vulgar abuse or more vulgar panegyric. Another trick we have seen nearly 
every writer of an essay on Carlyle fall into is imitation of his uncouth style 
and unwarrantable words. Some of the reviewers have gone farther than 
this : they have tried an imitation of his ideas. This last effort has been 
a signal failure. He is original. But every reader of his works who has 
the slightest respect for the language which was sufficient for the needs of 
a Milton, a Shakespsare, or a Burke, will heartily regret that the Chelsea 
philosopher ever went to live in Germany, or, at least, that he ever departed 
from the simple and flowing style of his earliest works ; as, for instance, 
' The Life of Schiller,' published in 1824. However, it is too late now for 
criticisms on his style to be of any use. His works are written; and, as 
they are full of great thoughts, the ugliness of their diction will always be 
forgotten in the originality, truth, and power of their matter. 

Thomas Carlyle is the son of a Scotch farmer, by whom he was educated 
as thoroughly as possible. From the parish school at Ecclefechan he went 
to a school at Annan, and thence, when he was fourteen years old, to the 
University of Edinburgh. Like most sons of Scotch farmers who have 
had a good education, Carlyle's first notion was to be made a ' meenester.' 
But he gave up the ministry for a mathematical tutorship in a school. 


Thomas Carlyle. 115 

This most disagreeable dmdgery to a man of his genius he quitted in two 
years to become a professional writer. In this capacity he furnished six- 
teen articles for Brewster's ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.' Perhaps the highest 
praise that can be given to encyclopaedia articles written half a century 
ago is to -say that they are worth reading now. He also translated at this 
time ' Legendre's Geometry,' to which he added a preface on Proportion. 
In 1824 his German studies bore fruit. ' Wilhelm Meister,' in English, 
from his pen, appeared in that year. 

In 1826 he married, and removed from Edinburgh shortly after to a 
small estate at Craigenputtock. Dumfriesshire. Here he led a life of seclu- 
sion, devoted to study, and writing for the ' Edinburgh,' the ' Westminster,' 
the ' Foreign Quarterly,' and ' Eraser's.' He lived at Craigenputtock eight 
years, and then removed, in 1834, to Cheyne-walk, Chelsea, which has been 
his home for thirty-eight years. 

In 1837 he began to give lectures in public. These lectures were con- 
tinued for several years, and the subjects dealt with were German literature, 
literary history, ' Revolutions of Modern Europe,' and, in 1840, ' Heroes 
and Hero Worship.' As a lecturer, our philosopher was remarkable for 
rough vigour, masterlike handling of his subject, and rude language to 
his audiences. The last, no doubt, did them good, and did not displease 
them. They paid to hear and see a nineteenth-century Diogenes, and they 
got their money's worth, and something more. 

Carlyle was made Lord Rector of the University of Edinburgh in 1866, 
and his speech to the young men of his Alma Mater was one of the finest 
ever spoken from the Lord Rector's chair. It was in this year that his 
wife died.' This sad event was a great shock. They had been married for 
forty years; and the epitaph her husband placed on her tombstone is one 
of the most eloquent and loving memorials ever penned. He came out in 
August of the same year to defend Governor Eyre from the attacks of his 
enemies. But his last public appearance of importance was as the writer 
of the article, ' Shooting Niagara : and After ?' which was published in 
' Macmillan' just after the passing of the Reform Bill. 


LIKE many men who, as actors, hold a high place in the estimation of the 
public, Mr. John Baldwin Buckstone left the profession to which he was 
brought up to become an actor. He was born in a southern suburb of 
London, in the year 1802, and was originally in the navy; but gave up 
the chance of serving his country afloat to become an articled clerk in an 
attorney's office. The law, however, was not a congenial pursuit; and Mr. 
Buckstone, having a very strong taste for the drama, made his first appear- 
ance on any stage at the Theatre Koyal Oakingham, in 1823. At this 
time he appears to have had a notion of succeeding Garrick as Hamlet, 
Othello, and Macbeth; but one day, the low comedian being absent, at half 
an hour's notice he undertook the character of Gabriel, the drunken servant 
in ' The Children in the Wood.' His success was so marked that he was after- 
wards induced to pay great attention to such characters. He continued, 
however, to appear in tragic parts ; and for the remainder of the season he 
played in tragedy and comedy alternately. 

Mr. Buckstone's debut in London was made in the same year (1823) at 
the Surrey Theatre, where he played the part of Peter Smink in Payne's 
' Armistice.' The success of the performance and the applause that greeted 
it clearly foreshadowed the position he would occupy on the London boards 
in low-comedy characters. 

His fame reached the Adelphi, and he was offered an engagement there, 
which he accepted appearing as Bobby Trot in his own drama of ' Luke 
the Labourer,' T. P. Cooke playing the Sailor, and Terry the Labourer. 

Mr. Buckstone's connection with the Adelphi lasted for many years. 
He used to play there in the winter, and at the Ha} ? market in the summer. 
He is the author of a large number of dramas, most of which were very suc- 
cessful at the time they were produced. 

But it is as the lessee of the Haymarket that Mr. Buckstone is best 


J. B. Buckstone. 

known to the present generation of playgoers. Mr. Webster took this 
theatre in 1837, and Mr. Buckstone went there with him, and, we believe, 
played there until he became lessee himself. As all our readers know, he 
is to be found there still, where every lover of good acting and a good laugh 
hopes he will long remain. Among his best impersonations, Box in ' Box 
and Cox,' Touchstone, Marplot, and Tony Lumpkin may be mentioned; 
and his most successful dramas are the famous ' Green Bushes,' ' Flowers of 
the Forest,' and ' The Kough Diamond.' How often his fun and rich drol- 
lery have set the house in a roar every playgoer knows. His impersonations 
are marked by originality of conception ; but his strong personality always 
shines through all, to the delight of all his admirers. On the whole, the 
modern stage has every reason to be proud of Mr. Buckstone. 


POETS of society are, perhaps, rarer than poets of any other sort. The sub- 
ject of our cartoon, however, has earned a place in the estimation of lovers 
of poetry by the side of Praed, and a little in advance of Prior, not only in 
time, but in skill and taste. Mr. Locker was born in 1821. He is of an old 
Kentish family : his father, Edward Hawke Locker, was a Civil Commis- 
sioner of Greenwich Hospital, a warm patron of literature and art, and the 
founder of the naval gallery of Greenwich Hospital; he also published the 
lives of some of the most distinguished naval worthies, as well as a tour that 
he made in Spain with Earl Kussell his own sketches illustrating the 
volume. The grandfather of the poet was Captain W. Locker, R.N., under 
whom both Lord Nelson and Lord Collingwood served. The former was 
especially his old and attached friend. In one of the numerous letters from 
Lord Nelson to his grandfather, in the possession of Mr. Locker, Lord 
Nelson says : ' You were the first person to teach me how to board a 
Frenchman, by your conduct when in the Experiment. You said, " Lay a 
Frenchman close, and you will beat him." ' Captain Locker died Lieutenant- 
Governor of Greenwich Hospital. 

Mr. Frederick Locker married a sister of the late Earl of Elgin and 
Kincardine, by whom he has one daughter. 

Mr. Locker has at different times contributed original verse to the 
'Times,' 'Pall -Mall Gazette,' 'Blackwood,' 'Cornhill,' 'Once a Week,' 
' Punch,' the ' Owl,' ' Macmillan,' ' Good Words,' ' St. Pauls,' and other 
magazines. Writing to a friend, his experience makes him say : ' Do not 
despair. At first I had great difficulty in persuading editors to have any- 
thing to say to my verses. They were unanimous in declining them; but 


' I only wear the cap and bells, 
And yet some tears are in my verses. 

Frederick Locker. 

Thackeray believed in me, and used to say, " Never mind, Locker; our verse 
may be small beer, but at any rate it is the right tap." This encouraged 
me, and I wrote on; and when " Macmillan" refused " My Neighbour Rose," 
I sent it to " The Cornhill;" and when " Eraser" declined " A Nice Corres- 
pondent," I sent it to " St. Pauls." I could get no one to accept " My Grand- 
mother." What used particularly to discourage me was, having my verses 
returned as not suitable, and then to see in the very next number of the 
magazine a poem that gave me the impression that it was the work of some 
relative of the editor perhaps his grandmamma. I think, if I wrote now, 
the editors would be more amiable; but it is too late, and this is what may 
be called the irony of destiny.' 

This may be so : it may be hard for a poet to find he has grown tired 
of writing just at the time when his verses are welcome everywhere; but 
the author of the exquisite little volume of ' London Lyrics' may safely rest 
on his laurels. Thackeray, seldom at fault in his literary criticisms, was 
quite right in this instance. The verses are anything but small beer. They 
are gems of the utmost polish and beauty. That they are appreciated, a 
fifth edition is of itself sufficient evidence. A writer in the ' Contemporary 
Review' for July, in an article on the genius of Prior, Praed, and Locker, 
makes the following remarks, which we should be wrong if we refrained 
from quoting. Let us premise that in 1867 Messrs. Moxon published a 
volume, edited by Mr. Locker, called 'Lyra Elegantiarum,' which was a 
collection of the best English vers de societe. To this volume the editor 
contributed a charmingly written introduction, in which he set out at length 
the various qualifications indispensable to any poet's production of unim- 
peachable vers de societe. Upon this preface the ' Contemporary' reviewer 
comments thus : 

' Among the qualifications of a poet of society, the following may be 
insisted on as indispensable. He must before all things be a man of the 
world, educated up to a high level of contemporary culture, and gifted with 
that temper of mental health which, as Goethe says, can only be obtained 
by him who " lives in the universal way with multitudes of men." He must 
be privileged, either by right of birth or force of wit, to move in the " upper" 
circle of the social sphere, and will be the fitter for his office as its prophet, 

1 20 Frederick Locker. 

the more he is acquainted with the circles below it. That he must have a 
definite artistic bias, a " singing" faculty, or, as Mr. Locker phrases it, must 
" be more or less of a poet" cela va sans dire. His next essential qualifica- 
tion is the gift of humour. No society can ever have existed in which youth 
and beauty, genius and experience, freely commingled, without the atmo- 
spheric element of humour, the incessant play of mental summer lightning, 
produced by the gentle collision of electrical natures. A flow of light 
humorous talk, rippling with banter, bubbling into jets of wit and satire, is 
notoriously the staple of" polite" conversation, and the brightest talkers are 
the most favoured guests. Lastly, and mainly for the same reason, he must 
be somewhat of an egotist; not only as any poet, if ever so little subjective, 
must be in becoming the self-conscious type of a class or race, but because 
the essence of polite conversation which he has to transfigure into art is 
never perfect unless the individuality of each participant be discernible in 
the amalgamated flavour of the whole.' 

That Mr. Locker not only possesses all the essential qualifications in- 
dispensable in a poet of society of the first rank whether we take his own 
estimate of what may be necessary or that of his reviewer every cultivated 
reader knows. But widely as his ' London Lyrics' have been read, his poetry 
is no more likely to please as large a circle as the productions of Cowper, 
Pope, or Tennyson, than the verses of Prior or Praed are likely to do so. 

We have spoken of Mr. Locker's verses as reflecting polish and culture 
in the highest degree; and, apropos of this, it is curious to note that he 
was almost as old a man when he began to write as Praed was when he left 
off writing. Though he is essentially the poet of the ' upper ten thousand,' 
to quote a hackneyed epithet, Mr. Locker's variety in his studies of life 
recommends him to all tastes. 

Here is a poet, unrivalled in his particular line, who has only published 
verses that fill a couple of hundred pages. Would that all those other poets 
true and sham would follow his example ! Yet by how few lines will 
any one of them be remembered by an ungrateful posterity ! Tennyson 
said, some time since, to a friend : ' If I am remembered a hundred years 
hence by twenty lines I have written, I shall be a lucky man.' Mr. Locker 
has written twenty poems that will be remembered a hundred years hence; 

Frederick Locker. 1 2 1 

as long as style in verse-making is an object of study. Of their kind, his 
verses are perfect. Having said this, it is unnecessary to praise his ear for 
rhythm, his skill in rhyme, his taste, his culture, his observation, or the 
genius that moves to all. 


THE name by which the American humorist who wrote ' The Jumping 
Frog' is known by the readers of his works is a nom de plume. Mr. 
Samuel L. Clemens has only lately left England, and has promised to come 
and see us ' Britishers' again before long. 

California has developed a literature of its own, and its proudest boast 
is the possession of Mark Twain. ' The Jumping Frog,' pronounced by the 
Saturday Keview' ' an inimitably funny book,' soon made its author famous, 
and gained for him readers wherever English is spoken. ' The Jumping 
Frog' is a story of the Californian gold-mines ; it is very humorous and 
very well told. ' Eye-openers,' ' Screamers,' ' A Burlesque Autobiography,' 
' The Innocents Abroad,' and ' The New Pilgrim's Progress,' are all of them 
works of the peculiar humour invented by our American cousins, from the 
pen of the author of ' The Jumping Frog.' 

In the summer of the year '67 a pleasure trip left New York, Mark 
Twain being one of the excursionists. For 1250 dollars, passengers were 
to cross the Atlantic, and visit Spain, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, and 
Syria. The incidents of travel and impressions of life in foreign parts are 
detailed by the American humorist in the two last works of the list given 
above. ' The Innocents Abroad' gives Twain's account of the voyage out ;. 
while ' The New Pilgrim's Progress' recounts the adventures of the voyage 

The author of these books is possessed of remarkable talent. His works 
are widely read and very generally popular. Mark Twain is altogether the 
best living exponent of American humour, and he may be sure of receiving 
a hearty welcome whenever he revisits the Old Country. 



KATIIER more than three years ago on the 16th of October 1869 Mr. 
Henry M. Stanley, travelling correspondent of the 'New York Herald/ 
being then in Madrid, received a telegram from the proprietor of that 
journal calling him to Paris. The message from Mr. James Gordon Ben- 
nett was to this effect : ' Come to Paris on important business.' 

The nature of this business was communicated to Mr. Stanley in the 
following conversation, quoted from the introductory chapter of his book : 

Mr. Bennett asked : 

' Where do you think Livingstone is ?' 

' I really do not know, sir.' 

' Do you think he is alive ?' 

' He may be, and he may not be,' I answered. 

' Well, I think he is alive, and that he can be found ; and I am going 
to send you to find him.' 

Mr. Bennett goes on to say : 

' Of course you will act according to your own plans, and do what you 

1 More easily said than done. But to the great honour of the young- 
correspondent of the New York paper, it will ever be set down, in the pages 
of the history of gallant adventure, that he successfully accomplished the 
difficult task of finding Dr. Livingstone in Central Africa. This came to 
pass two years after Mr. Stanley received his instructions from Mr. Bennett. 
On Friday the 10th of November 1871, at the village of Ujiji, the young 
explorer shook the famous missionary by the hand. When he saw Living- 
stone advancing to meet him, he was overpowered with joy at the welcome 
sight of the object of his long search. 'What would I not have given,' he 
says, ' for a bit of friendly wilderness where, unseen, I might vent my joy 


H . M. Stanley, 125 

in some mud freak, such as idiotically biting my hand, turning a somer- 
sault, or slashing at trees, in order to allay those exciting feelings that were 
well-nigh uncontrollable. My heart beats fast ; but I must not let my face 
betray my emotions, lest it should detract from the dignity of a white man 
appearing under such extraordinary circumstances.' 

The circumstances of such a meeting as that of the two travellers are 
indeed unique. It is not to be wondered at that Mr. Stanley wanted to 
' kick up his heels' on the occasion. 

Reviews of his book, ' How I found Livingstone,' reports of his recep- 
tions and speeches, and of dinners given in his honour, have filled the 
columns of the daily and weekly press to such an extent as to render a 
review of Mr. Stanley's travels in extenso unnecessary. We may, however, 
remark that, as a narrator of the incidents of travel and adventure, he is 
far behind several of his predecessors in ' doing Africa.' Grant, Speke, Du 
Chaillu, and Burton have all written more picturesque accounts of their 
performances. Mr. Stanley's book only becomes interesting when the 
reader is more than half way through its pages. From the time he records 
his meeting with Livingstone, however, the interest in his doings becomes 

There are two gentlemen who have travelled who could have done 
justice to the subject. Mr. Sala and Mr. Hepworth Dixon could both have 
given us a series of picturesque sketches of such an adventure, unrivalled in 
their way. There was, however, the little difficulty of getting to TJjiji. 
This it was, probably, that deterred them both from writing a book of 
travels that would have put all their previous performances into the shade. 
There remains the feet that Mr. Stanley did get there. This places his 
book beyond the pale of ordinary criticism. His readers will never forget 
that he found Livingstone. In the knowledge of this, any literary faults 
he may have will be readily pardoned. 


OUR ablest historians devote their learning and energies nowadays rather 
to giving a complete history of a comparatively short period than to record- 
ing the history of a country from what are known as ' the earliest times' 
down to ' the present day.' Prominent among these writers of history is 
Mr. Froude. An original thinker, a sound scholar, and a man of varied 
culture and of large and liberal ideas, his opinions are always worthy of 
attention, though it is not at all times easy to draw the same conclusions 
that he does from statements of historical facts. Mr. Froude's principal 
works are ' Short Studies on Great Subjects,' a ' History of England from 
the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada,' ' The Nemesis of 
Faith,' ' The English in Ireland,' vol. i. This work is to be completed in 
two volumes. Under the title of ' Short Studies on Great Subjects,' Mr. 
Froude has collected several of his essays historical, controversial, and 
descriptive originally published in 'Eraser's Magazine' and elsewhere. 
Mr. Froude's literary style is very attractive. The diction is always simple 
and pure, but there is an animation and spirit in the historian's descriptions 
sufficient to clothe with interest the barest facts, figures, and arguments of 
his historical narratives. 

James Anthony Froude was born on the 23d of April 1818. He took 
deacon's orders in the Church of England in 1844; published ' The Nemesis 
of Faith' in 1849, the ' History' from 1856 to 1869, the ' Short Studies' in 
1867, ' English in Ireland' in 1872. 



THE editorship of ' Punch' necessarily confers upon its holder a prominent 
position among men of letters; but the present occupant of the editorial 
chair was an eminent man of letters, as well as a tried and valued colla- 
borateur on the staff of the comic paper, before he filled the difficult posi- 
tion of its literary chief. When Mark Lemon died in 1870, a few weeks 
before his friend Charles Dickens was taken from us, everybody felt, as 
was said of Garrick, and also of Lever, that his loss was the removal of a 
light the extinction of which eclipsed the gaiety of nations. It is often 
unknown to the world by whom a popular paper is edited, but Mark Lemon's 
name was familiar in their mouths as a household word to quote the now 
hackneyed line of the poet, of whose Falstaff the first editor of ' Punch' 
was so excellent a representative. The name of Mark Lemon was known 
all over the English-speaking world, and everywhere 'Punch' connoted 
Lemon. The two ideas were inseparable from the term. But when the 
first grief at the loss of the genial and witty humorist had had time to lose 
some of its poignancy, all who wished well to the satirical journal in 
other words, all the world were rejoiced to hear that the choice of his 
successor had fallen on Shirley Brooks : like the original projector of 
4 Punch,' himself a novelist, humorist, playwright, and to employ a phrase 
in use in the cricket-field ' good all-round' man of letters. 

The promise implied in his selection has been well borne out, and 
'Punch' has rarely take it one month with another been more amusing 
and clever, or more brightly lighted with honest yet kindly satire, than it 
has been since Shirley Brooks has driven the team of artists and men of 
letters that make up the staff of the English ' Charivari.' 

The subject of our notice was born in 1815, and after his education 
as far as youthful studies are concerned was completed, he turned his 


Shirley Brooks. \ 29 

attention to the law, and passed with great success the examinations of the 
Incorporated Law Society. But, like Dickens and Disraeli, the natural 
bent of his genius impelled him towards the culture of the Muses, and he 
forsook law for literature. 

He was for some years associated with the ' Morning Chronicle;' and, 
as the representative of that paper, travelled over Kussia, Syria, and Egypt, 
being charged with an inquiry into the state of the labouring classes in 
those countries. 

As a dramatist, the editor of ' Punch' has produced works of sterling 
merit. ' The Creole, or Love's Fetter,' was first produced at the Lyceum 
in April 1847, in which Mr. and Mrs. Keeley, Frank Matthews, and Leigh 
Murray sustained the principal characters. The next year saw, at the 
same theatre, a capital one-act comedy, ' Anything for a Change,' in which 
Harley and Charles Mathews appeared. Among his other dramatic works, 
we may mention ' The Daughter of the Stars,' brought out at the Strand. 
In ' Timour the Tartar' he had John Oxenford as joint author. ' The Guar- 
dian Angel,' at the Haymarket, Mr. and Mrs. Keeley appeared in ; and 
' The Lowther Arcade,' a very sprightly farce, with two pieces of greater 
labour, ' Honours and Tricks,' and ' Our New Governess,' must not be 
omitted from this list. 

Mr. Brooks was in his earlier days a contributor to many of the 
best periodicals; was a leader writer on the 'Illustrated London News,' 
and for some time editor of the ' Literary Gazette;' but it is as a no- 
velist that his talents arc best known and appreciated by the readers of 
' Once a Week,' in which his best stories have appeared; and were it not 
that we propose to let him tell us the history of that famous satirical 
journal he now so worthily conducts, we should dwell at length on 
his novels. 'The Silver Cord,' which appeared in 'Once a Week,' 
' Sooner or Later,' ' The Gordian Knot,' and his first story, ' Aspen 
Court,' complete the list of his longer works of fiction. Nothing would be 
more to our mind than to offer some criticism here upon the skill in the 
construction of plots, the sustained interest, the sparkling dialogue, and 
the touches of genius in exhibiting the inner working of the human heart, 
that his novels show; but instead we will give, in Mr. Shirley Brook's 

130 Shirley Brooks. 

own words, the story of how ' Punch' was founded, and how it became the 
most successful of satirical and comic journals. 

' Punch,' said its present editor, in a very charming and witty lecture 
he used to deliver on ' Modern Satire,' ' was founded July 17th, 1841, by 
two or three gentlemen Hemy May hew, the original projector, Mark 
Lemon, E. Landells, Sterling Coyne, and Henry Grattan. It was at first 
a joint speculation of authors, artists, and engravers ; and I was only con- 
nected with it after it had been established, and others had borne the heat 
and burden of the day. The first and second numbers were brought out ; 
but, in truth, it was a question whether the third would appear, for want of 
funds, for it was no secret that the projectors were none of them rich men. 
Indeed, I may say they were all poor men. Had it not been for the happy 
accident of Mr. Mark Lemon having a farce, " The Silver Thimble," accepted 
at one of the minor theatres, " Punch" would have been stopped. The silver 
thimble, however, was large enough to cover the acorn, which has since 
grown into an oak. At first, the paper was published by a person who was 
noted as being connected with some disreputable prints, and there was an 
ill-odour resulting from the connection hanging about " Punch." This was 
no fault of the projectors ; and the moment they were aware of the fact, 
they took the paper to a respectable firm, who became the proprietors ; and 
from that time the paper has increased largely from year to year in popu- 
larity and circulation. Perhaps a good reason why " Punch" has been suc- 
cessful lies in the fact that there has been no line, from the first to the last, 
which might not be read by a girl of eighteen. Had it been otherwise, I 
hope I should not have been in this hall to talk about it.' 

Speaking of the old contributors, the lecturer referred to Douglas Jerrold 
(born in London in 1803, died 8th of June 1857), whose writings under 
the signature of Q., the first of which appeared on the 13th September 
1841, were very successful, and soon gained notoriety. The late Gilbert 
a'Beckett (born in London, 1810 ; died at Boulogne, 1856) was another 
valued contributor. The sketch of a London magistrate in ' Aspen Court' 
is a portrait of Mr. a'Beckett by the hand of his friend, Shirley Brooks. 
John Leech, who was born in London in 1816, was mentioned in appro- 
priate terms of eulogy. ' The greatest compliment that could be paid to 

Shirley Brooks. 131 

him was that of some young ladies who were too far from a town to procure 
the fashions early, so they dressed themselves after the style of his carica- 
tures.' Albert Smith (1816-1860) was an able contributor. Thomas 
Hood (1778-1845), whose various pen touched alike the springs of laughter 
and the sources of tears, was amongst those who wrote for ' Punch.' This 
is the story of the publication of the celebrated ' Song of the Shirt.' Hood 
sent it to Mark Lemon, for insertion in ' Punch,' with a note of apology. 
' I sent it to a first-rate magazine, and they wrote back, " It is hardly the 
thing for genteel people." ' What say you ?' said Shirley Brooks. The 
answer of his audience need hardly be told how their applause recorded 
their appreciation of the writings of Thomas Hood. 

Tom Taylor, born at Sunderland in 1817, was also a contributor. Per- 
ceval Leigh whose name was not so well known, but ' Pips his Diary,' and 
4 Ye Manners and Customs of ye English in ye Nineteenth Century,' &c., 
were from his pen Henry and Horace Mayhew, Laman Blanchard, Maguire, 
Thackeray, Tennyson, Trench, were also among the writers ; and Doyle, 
who drew the design for the cover which, by the bye, is not the original 
one in which Mr. ' Punch' first showed and Kenny Meadows were among 
the illustrators. The names of those of the present time are too well known 
to need mention here. 

Shirley Brooks said, ' The cartoons were settled at a dinner given once 
a week, at which the editor met the contributors and artists. These meet- 
ings were most pleasant, and the dinners remarkably good.' 

He farther related some humorous anecdotes of the curious communi- 
cations forwarded to the editor. ' Ladies sometimes sent accounts of the 
dresses, ribbons, and bonnets of other persons, with a request to " cut them 
up," the information being of so minute a character that it could only be 
written by one lady of another. Sometimes the editor was requested to 
write something stinging about persons who gave parties and did not pay 
their debts, laying special stress on those who crammed 120 guests into a 
room not capable of holding fifty. 

' Some persons were patronising ; and one gentleman sought to bribe, 
by stating he, if something he sent were inserted, would take twenty copies 
of" Punch." Sometimes artful advertisers sent communications deprecatory 

132 Shirley Brooks. 

of themselves, hoping to get notoriety ; but Mark Lemon was too old to be 
sold in that way' as no doubt Shirley Brooks is. 

' An hotel-keeper,' he added, ' who had lately opened a house in a water- 
ing-place, pleasantly situated, offered, if a cut of his premises were inserted, 
and a couple of letters were written and dated from his house, in the pages 
of " Punch," to let any two gentlemen connected with the office stay at his 
hotel free of charge for a month.' On one occasion, when the lecturer was 
in a railway carriage, the talk turned on ' Punch,' and a fellow passenger 
informed him in confidence that he had written a series of papers in the 
periodical of which Shirley Brooks himself was the author. 

Our outline of the remarks the lecturer made on the history of ' Punch' 
is necessarily very imperfect. But the lecture on ' Satire' was altogether a 
very charming evening's entertainment. We wish the editor of ' Punch' 
would repeat it. We close this notice by quoting a few words from 
James Hannay's estimate of the satire of ' Punch :' ' The decorum which 
distinguishes ; ' Punch" from the best effusions of the class in the olden days 
belongs as much to the age as to the periodical. In the worst of timen 
our facetious friend is innocent ; and though our progenitors seem to have 
thought that all wit required great license, the student finds that they were 
often licentious and dull too, sacrificing decency, and getting nothing in 

Shirley Brooks, in accepting the duty of carrying out the traditional 
policy of the leading satirical journal on all social and political questions, 
in taking the chair so long and so well filled by one of the first promoters 
of the paper, and in essaying to maintain the prestige of the best journal 
of the kind in the world, took upon himself a grave responsibility. For 
' Punch' belongs to the British nation. This step was taken two years ago. 
The result has proved how happy was the selection of a successor to him 
who had grown old with the paper, whose interests he watched so well- 
how capable and how gentle a follower has been found to hold the coach- 
man's whip over the flyers that pull the ' Punch' coach. 

Cursed be verse, how well soe'cr it flow, 
That tends to make one honest man my foe. 

Ten years ago, this couplet closed the lecturer's comments on the paper 

Shirley Brooks. 133 

he now edits. The thoroughly English sentiment that inspires this homely 
rhyme is the yeast that leavens the fancy, wit, and satire which so often 
have lighted the pages of our Fleet-street friend. The name of Shirley 
Brooks is a guarantee of the maintenance of the old principles in the 'Punch' 
of the future. 


THE Very Reverend Arthur Penrhyn Stanley is the son of a clergyman who 
was at one time in the navy, and who, though he was made Bishop of Nor- 
wich, was always a good deal more remarkable for his knowledge of natural 
history than for his theological learning. 

He was educated at Rugby School, under Arnold, afterwards proceeding 
to Balliol, where he won a scholarship. The Broad-Church leader's Uni- 
versity course was distinguished by a series of successes, ending, in 1837, 
in his taking a First Class in Classics. He was elected to a fellowship at 
University; and for many years, and with signal success and popularity, 
Dean Stanley discharged the duties of tutor of his college. 

He was afterwards Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford? 
and Canon of Christ Church. 

Nearly thirty years ago, Dean Stanley first became known to the world 
of letters outside the limits of his University by the publication, in 1844, of 
his admirably written ' Life of Arnold.' 

He is also the author of many volumes of sermons and lectures, and has 
contributed largely to periodical literature. 

He travelled in the East with the Prince of Wales, and was, no doubt, a 
most suitable chaplain, and appreciated by his Royal Highness at his true 
worth. When in the East, Dr. Stanley let his beard grow long, which gave 
him a patriarchal appearance he does not wear in London, where many are 
familiar with the figure of the small, thin, spiritual-looking man who is 
Dean of Westminster. Dr. Stanley's views in Church matters are well 
known. He is a leader of the Broad-Church party, is always for the fullest 
amount of religious liberty for everybody, is a friend of Dr. Colenso's, and 
was a subscriber to the Yoysey Defence Fund. 

Dr. Stanley succeeded the present Archbishop Trench in the Deanery 
of Westminster. His official position at the abbey church has placed 


Dean Stanley. 135 

upon him the duty of preaching a funeral sermon over the mortal re- 
mains of several very great men. Dean Stanley has preached, after their 
burial in the national mausoleum, the funeral sermons of Charles Dickens, 
Grote, and other eminent men. Such a painful task could not have fallen 
into abler or more friendly hands. 

The Dean's prominent figure among the ecclesiastical reformers has 
subjected him to much severe criticism. In that pretty Church speech at 
Oxford, in the month of November 1864, when Mr. Disraeli told the world 
that he espoused the side of the angels, he alluded thus to the labours of 
Stanley, Jowett, and Maurice : 

' I do perfect justice to the great talent, the great energy, and the con- 
siderable information which the new party command; but I believe that 
this new party in the Church will fail, for two reasons. In the first place, 
having examined all their writings, I believe without an exception - 
whether they consist of fascinating eloquence, diversified learning, and 
picturesque sensibility I speak seriously what I feel all these exercised, 
too, by one honoured in this great University, and whom to know is to 
admire and regard or whether I find them in the cruder conclusions of 
prelates, who appear to me to have commenced their theological studies 
after they grasped the crozier, and who introduced to society their obsolete 
discoveries .... or whether I read the lucubrations of nebulous professors, 
who appear in their style to have revived chaos .... or, lastly, whether it 
be the provincial arrogance and precipitate self-complacency which flash 
and glare in an essay or review I find this common characteristic of all 
their writings, that their learning is always second-hand.' 

Notwithstanding such criticism, the ' new school' still lives, and very 
likely now Mr. Disraeli himself would be prepared to treat it with more 


THE great apostle to the Philistines of this later age, and the preacher of 
sweetness and light, Matthew Arnold, is the eldest son of one of the most 
remarkable and noblest Englishmen who have flourished in the nineteenth 
century Dr. Thomas Arnold, some time head-master of Bugby School. 

Matthew Arnold was born December 24th, 1822, at Laleham, near 
Staines, county Middlesex. He was the eldest son of nine children of his 
distinguished father, of whom he is as good a representative as the present 
Lord Derby is of the illustrious Tory chief. 

The Arnolds came originally from Lowestoft, in Suffolk, but the grand- 
father of the poet and critic was a collector of customs dues at Cowes, in 
the Isle of Wight. 

Matthew Arnold was educated first at Winchester and Rugby. From 
school he went to Oxford, where he was entered at Balliol, having gained a 
scholarship. This was in 1840. 

During his university career he gained the Newdigate prize for English 
verse, the subject of his prize poem being Oliver Cromwell. At the end of 
his term in statu pupillari he graduated in honours, and was elected a fellow 
of Oriel ; and in 1847 was appointed private secretary to the late Marquis 
of Lansdownc, which post he held for four years. He married, in 1851, 
the daughter of the late Mr. Justice Wightmann, and received from Go- 
vernment the appointment of lay inspector of schools, a post he was parti- 
cularly well qualified to fill with advantage to the cause of education. 

The first volume of his poems was published in 1849, as the work of 
'A.;' and only a limited circle of friends knew the name of the author of 
' The Strayed Reveller,' and other poems. Three years afterwards ' Empe- 
docles on Etna' appeared, and shortly after that the ' A.' was dropped, and 
Messrs. Longmans issued a volume of poems, the authorship of which was 


Matthew Arnold. 137 

Matthew Arnold's poems are full of original thoughts, expressed in the 
purest English. They are models of style ; but, from their subject-matter 
and treatment, are never likely to be popular, in a wide sense of the word. 
To these published books of verse he owed his selection for the post of 
Professor of Poetry in the University of Oxford; an important office he held 
for ten years, from 1857 to 1867. His most remarkable lectures in this 
time are on the subject of translating Homer, in which he advocates, in 
very strong language, the adoption of the English hexameter, in preference 
to any other metre, for effectively rendering the great Greek poet in English 

Mr. Arnold is chiefly remarkable in prose as an essayist. Perhaps his 
best-known book is that entitled ' Essays on Criticism,' which consists of a 
collection of papers previously published in various magazines and reviews. 



MB. WILLIAM HARRISON AINSWORTH, whose novels were very popular only 
few years ago, and who is still a contributor to Mr. Mudie's bookshelves, 
was born at Manchester, in the year 1805. He was educated 'at the Free 
Grammar School of his native city, and, the son of a solicitor, was bred to 
the law. But at a very early age Mr. Ainsworth showed a taste for liter- 
ature; before he left school he was a contributor to the pages of ' The Iris,' 
a journal then published in Manchester. He married the daughter of Mr. 
Ebers, a publisher in Bond-street, and at that time manager of the Opera- 
house. Ainsworth's first novel was 'Sir John Chiverton;' and of this, his 
first essay in fiction, no less an authority than Sir Walter Scott spoke in 
terms of high praise. 

At Mr. Ebers's suggestion, Ainsworth appears to have tried his hand as 
a publisher; but he soon abandoned this, and devoted himself to literary 
pursuits. In 1834, ' Rookwood' appeared, and at once established his repu- 
tation as a writer of fiction. 'Rookwood' was followed, in 1837, by ' Crich- 
ton,' which was as successful as its immediate predecessor, and added to the 
author's fame. In the month of March 1839, Charles Dickens retired from 
the editorship of Bentley's Miscellany,' and wrote his successor in, in his 
humorous style, talking of the old and new coachman ' Bentley's' being the 
coach. ' The new whip' we quote the writer of a short biography of Ains- 
worth ' having mounted the box, drove straight to Newgate.' By the bye, 
Dickens had driven 'Bentley's' there before him; but the great humorist's 
thieves' story had a fine moral to it. ' He there took in Jack Sheppard 
and Cruikshank the artist ; and, aided by that very vulgar but wonderful 
draughtsman, he made an efficient story of the burglar's or housebreaker's 

In such works of fiction as ' Jack Sheppard,' it soon became plain that 
Ainsworth's forte lay. He followed up his latest success with ' Guy Fawkes' 


Harrison Ainsiuorth. 139 

and ' The Tower of London.' In 1842 his connection with ' Bentley's' ter- 
minated, and in a magazine of his own he produced successively ' The 
Miser's Daughter,' ' Windsor Castle,' and ' St. James's.' In the above list 
the best of the author's novels are contained, but it by no means exhausts 
the catalogue of his works. It is as the biographer of such gentlemen as 
Mr. Jack Sheppard, of bad fame, that our author must lay claim to immor- 
tality ; and it is in this field of labour that he is most at home. He has 
himself placed on record the state of his feelings after he had disposed of 
Mr. Turpin's apocryphal steed ' Black Bess.' ' Well do I remember,' says 
the author, ' the fever into which I was thrown during the time of compo- 
sition. My pen literally scoured over the pages. So thoroughly did I 
identify myself with the flying highwayman that, once started, I found it 
impossible to halt. ... In his (Turpin's) company I mounted the hillside, 
dashed through the bustling village, swept over the desolate heath, threaded 
the silent street, plunged into the eddying stream. . . . With him I shouted, 
sang, laughed, exulted, wept ; nor did I retire to rest till in imagination I 
heard the bell of York Minster toll forth the knell of poor Black Bess.' 

This is poetic frenzy with a vengeance ; and nobody will be disposed to 
deny that, whatever else the novelist lacked, it certainly was not sympathy 
with his creations. 

The moral tendency of his writings, and the effect they were likely to 
produce on the youthful or untrained mind, have often been the subject of 
criticism. Of these, we think there can be no doubt the effect must be 
bad. While we wish Mr. Ainsworth no harm, we wish the cause of morality 
in fiction well; and we cannot help thinking that, if the 'fever into which 
he was thrown,' by the recital of the lawless adventures of a highwayman, 
had carried off his passion for writing novels, English literature would have 
been the gainer. 


ACCORDING to an oft-told story, a parliamentary reporter being asked if a 
certain M.P. had not been in the gallery, replied, ' Yes; but h^ was not up 
to our mark, so we pitched him into the House !' The said M.P. might 
have been a clever politician and statesman, though he failed in reporting, 
which requires a special and natural aptitude. The same remark is appli- 
cable to other departments of journalism. The leader-writer, the essayist, 
and the critic need extensive reading, minute observation, quickness of ap- 
prehension, and to wield an ever-ready pen. The journalist must also have 
the faculty of writing in a style that is both easy and instructive; for the 
newspaper reader expects to be spared the trouble of thinking, and to be 
regaled with completely digested thought. The adage that tells us the poet 
is born and the orator made is a rhetorical error; because the poet needs 
mental culture, and no man can be an orator unless he has the special 
talent. So with the journalist, who must be both born and made. 

Mr. John Baker Hopkins was born in London, on the 10th of April 
1830. He is maternally descended from a Staffordshire family, the Bakers, 
who have been closely allied with the Jennings family, and he is named 
after his great grandfather, a Wedgbury worthy, whose physical prowess, 
was celebrated in local song. 

In April 1862, Mr. Henry Hotze, the commercial agent of the Confederate 
States, called on Mr. Hopkins, and discussed the expediency of buying the 
'Atlas,' and making it the Confederate organ in Europe. Mr. Hopkins 
suggested that it would be better to start a new paper as the avowed organ 
of the Confederacy; and this was agreed to. In ten days after this interview 
that is, on the 1st May 1862 the first number of the ' Index' appeared, 
under the joint editorship and management of Messrs. Hotze and Hopkins. 
At the 1862 meeting of the Social Science Congress, at the London Guild- 


. B. Hopkins. 141 

hall, Mr. Hopkins read an elaborate and remarkable statistical paper on 
the resources of the South; and this paper he soon afterwards reprinted as 
an introduction to ' The South Vindicated.' 

The connection with the ' Index' involved a great deal of labour outside 
the immediate business of the paper; for the 'Index' was the bureau for in- 
formation on Southern affairs. Mr. Hopkins was the London correspondent 
of the ' New York Daily News,' and he also sent occasional letters to the 
' Mobile Kegister.' At the conclusion of the civil war it was intended to 
carry on the ' Index;' but President Johnson regarded the continued publi- 
cation of the paper as a proof that the South had not entirely submitted to 
the Union, and therefore the ' Index' ceased to appear. 

From 186-1 until 1868, Mr. Hopkins held the responsible appointment of 
London correspondent to the Paris ' Correspondence Havas' a lithographic 
daily sheet of telegrams and news, circulated by imperial authority, and 
from which the French press took their information. The ' Correspondence 
Havas' is the oldest press association in Europe, and from it sprang our 
' Reuter agency' - Mr. Julius Eeuter having been for many years on the 
' Havas' staff before he started his useful and successful agency in England. 

In. September 1865, Mr. Hopkins was invited by his friend Captain 
Hamber, the editor, and by Mr. Jolmstone, the proprietor, to join the staff' 
of the ' Standard;' and for three years he was associated with that paper. 

Meantime Mr. Hopkins produced ' The Fall of the Confederacy,' an essay 
that was favourably received both in England and America. Some sketches 
of social life which had been contributed to the ' Cosmopolitan' were col- 
lected and published under the title of ' Cosmopolitan Sketches.' A few 
months after the passing of the 1867 Reform Bill, Mr. Hopkins wrote ' The 
English Revolution.' In that book, after a survey of the political situation, 
the author advocates certain changes and reforms which he deems expedient 
in consequence of the establishment of household suffrage. 

At the commencement of 1867, Mr. Hopkins's learned friend, the editor 
of the ' Law Journal,' offered him an appointment on that paper, which he 
accepted and still holds. Mr. Hopkins was an occasional contributor of 
leaders to the 'Morning Post,' and for some time wrote a weekly letter 
under the signature of ' Esse Quam Yideri.' 

142 J. B. Hopkins. 

These letters led to an engagement on 'Vanity Fair/ to which periodical 
he contributed under the same nom de plume. 

In May 1870, the London ' Figaro,' one of the most successful journal- 
istic enterprises of the day, was started ; and, two months later, Mr. James 
Mortimer selected Mr. Hopkins for his chief leader-writer. It cannot be 
denied that Mr. Hopkins is sometimes too unsparing and too vehement in 
the use of invective, and ' too bitter in his satire ; but he says, and truly, 
that he has never written a line that assailed or reflected upon the private 
character of any man, be he prince or peasant. 


THE subject of our cartoon was born in Scotland in the year 1824. He is 
well known as the editor of ' Good Words for the Young,' the title of which 
has lately been changed to ' Good Things.' The periodical over the in- 
terests of which Mr. Macdonald presides was started after the great success 
that attended its parent, ' Good Words,' when under the care of the late 
Dr. Norman Macleod. 

Mr. Macdonald's first attempt at a book of any importance was met 
with a rebuff from the eminent publisher to whom he had offered the 
manuscript. He received a note, the terms of which are familiar to every 
man of letters, successful or unsuccessful. 

He was told that, though the manuscript was a credit to him, and 
showed signs of great promise for the future, it contained certain things 
that it was not desirable, &c. In a word, the copy was politely declined. 
After this, however, Mr. Macdonald, with the perseverance of his nation, 
tried again, and was successful. 

The book the first eminent publisher had rejected was ' David Elgin- 
brod,' the author's best novel. 

The following is a pretty complete list of Mr. Macdonald's works : 
' Phantastes,' ' David Elginbrod,' ' The Portent,' ' Alec Forbes of Howglen,' 
' Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood,' ' Guild Court,' ' At the Back of the 
North Wind,' 'Dealings with the Fairies,' 'Robert Falconer,' 'The Sea- 
board Parish,' ' Ronald Bannerman's Boyhood,' ' The Miracles of our Lord,' 
' Unspoken Sermons,' ' Wilfrid Cumbermede,' and ' The Vicar's Daughter.' 
Mr. Macdonald's first books displayed considerable originality of thought ; 
the characters were strongly marked and life-like, and they had a good 
Scotch savour about them. Since then, however, their author has been on 
the decline ; his books have grown dull, and he has taken to favouring his 


George Macdonald. 1 45 

readers with long and troublesome sermons in every other chapter of what 
he is pleased to style new novels. 

The fall of the once ubiquitous A. K. H. B. as far as current literature 
was concerned may be traced to foisting upon the public a book of ser- 
mons as ' The Graver Thoughts of a Country Parson.' Mr. Macdonald 
should take warning in time, and call novels novels and sermons sermons. 

We should rejoice to see him again writing such books as ' Annals of a 
Quiet Neighbourhood' and ' David Elginbrod;' and we very much regret he 
ever devoted himself to goody-goody literature. 



AMONG our portraits are included some few of those gentlemen who, not 
being known in the strict sense as literary men, are identified with literary 
interests. We have already given Mr. W. H. Smith, M.P. for Westminster, 
and Mr. Mudie, the well-known librarian ; we now add Mr. William Tinsley, 
of 18 Catherine-street, Strand, the proprietor of ' Tinsleys' Magazine,' whom 
we have selected as a representative publisher. 

Mr. William Tinsley trades under the name of Tinsley Brothers; he has, 
however, no brother in partnership with him, nor has he had for several 
years past. The business known as ' Tinsley Brothers' was founded some 
twenty years ago by William and Edward Tinsley, hence the name 
under which the business is still carried on by the surviving partner. Mr. 
Edward Tinsley was, we believe, the younger brother of the two, and at his 
death, six or seven years ago, the business came into the sole possession of 
the present proprietor. 

William Tinsley was born, in the year 1830, at the village of South 
Mimms, in the county of Middlesex; and we hope we are violating no 
confidence when we mention that he was sent to work by his father 
as a farmer's boy before he was twelve years old; that the only actual 
schooling he ever received was at the national school at South Mimms, and 
this for no more than a few months. 

At the age of fourteen, young William Tinsley was offered the chance 
of learning a trade. He availed himself of the opportunity thus afforded 
him; and it was with the few pounds he had saved whilst working at 
his trade that he, with his brother Edward, opened a small shop in the 
Strand for the sale of second-hand books. But the brothers were not long 
content with being merely booksellers : they soon began to print and publish 
books on their own account. The few books they published to start with 



IN BONDflct 




* ,L. 

William Tiiislcy. 147 

bore the name of William Tinsley only as publisher. Before long they 
removed to premises in Catherine-street, where the publishing business of 
the firm of Tinsley Brothers has since that time been carried on. 

From a farmer's boy, with two shillings or half a crown a week for 
wages, to the position Mr. "William Tinsley now holds as a publisher, is no 
ordinary leap in life, especially when it must be taken into consideration 
that he had only the advantage in early life of the most rudimentary educa- 
tion. Mr. Tinsley is now, we believe, sometimes a contributor upon dra- 
matic and social subjects to the pages of his own magazine. The story of 
William Tinslcy's life, if told at length, would no doubt add but one more 
to the thousands of proofs of what perseverance and pluck can accomplish 
when put to the test. 

The Editor of this volume, and indeed Mr. William Tinsley himself, are both aware that the short statement 
of the rise and progress of the firm of Tinsley Brothers, and the few particulars about Mr. Tinsley's own life, 
will bo interesting to but a small portion, if any, of ths reading public ; nor would the statement have been put 
forth but for very good reasons. 




N Cartoon Portraits and 

7598 biographical sketches of 

V3 men of the day